Robert Greene’s Alphonsus

Robert Greene’s

The Comicall Historie of

Alphonsus, King of Aragon.
As it hath been sundrie times acted. 1599

Modern spelling
Transcribed by BF. copyright © 2002
Edited and designed for the web by Robert Brazil


Brinted [sic.] by Thomas Creede


CARINUS, the rightful heir to the crown of Arragon.
ALPHONSUS, his son.
FLAMINIUS, King of Arragon.
BELINUS, King of Naples.
AMURACK, the Great Turk.
ARCASTUS, King of the Moors.
CLARAMONT, King of Barbary.
CROCON, King of Arabia.
FAUSTUS, King of Babylon.
Two Priests of Mahomet.
Provost, Soldiers, Janissaries, &c.
FAUSTA, wife to Amurack.
IPHIGINA, her daughter.
MEDEA, an enchantress.
MAHOMET (speaking from the brazen head).


[After you have sounded thrice, let Venus be let down from
the top of the Stage, and when she is down, say:

VENUS: Poets are scarce, when Goddesses themselves
Are forced to leave their high and stately seats,
Placed on the top of high Olympus Mount,
To seek them out, to pen their Champion’s praise.
The time hath been when Homer’s sugared Muse
Did make each Echo to repeat his verse,
That every coward that durst crack a spear,
And Tilt and Tourney for his Lady’s sake,
Was painted out in colors of such price
As might become the proudest Potentate. … [I.Pro.10]
But nowadays so irksome idless’ slights,
And cursed charms have witched each student’s mind,
That death it is to any of them all,
If that their hands to penning you do call:
Oh Virgil, Virgil, wert thou now alive,
Whose painful pen in stout Augustus’ days,
Did deign to let the base and silly fly
To ‘scape away without thy praise of her.
I do not doubt but long or ere this time,
Alphonsus’ fame unto the heavens should climb: … [I.Pro.20]
Alphonsus’ fame, that man of Jove his seed,
Sprung from the loins of the immortal Gods,
Whose sire, although he habit on the Earth,
May claim a portion in the fiery Pole,
As well as anyone whatere he be.
But, setting by Alphonsus’ power divine,
What Man alive, or now amongst the ghosts,
Could countervail his courage and his strength?
But thou art dead, yea, Virgil, thou art gone,
And all his acts drowned in oblivion. … [I.Pro.30]
And all his acts drowned in oblivion?
No, Venus, no, though Poets prove unkind
And loath to stand in penning of his deeds.
Yet rather than they shall be clean forgot,
I, which was wont to follow Cupid’s games,
Will put in ure Minerva’s sacred Art;
And this my hand, which used for to pen
The praise of love and Cupid’s peerless power,
Will now begin to treat of bloody Mars,
Of doughty deeds and valiant victories. … [I.Pro.40]
[Enter Melpomine, Clio, Erato, with their sisters, playing all
upon sundrie Instruments, Calliope only excepted, who coming
last, hangeth down the head and plays not of her Instrument.
But see whereas the stately Muses come,
Whose harmony doth very far surpass
The heavenly Music of Apollo’s pipe!
But what means this? Melpomine herself
With all her Sisters sound their Instruments,
Only excepted fair Calliope,
Who, coming last and hanging down her head,
Doth plainly show by outward actions
What secret sorrow doth torment her heart. [Stands aside.]

MELPOMINE: Calliope, thou which so oft didst crake … [I.Pro.50]
How that such clients clustered to thy Court
By thick and three-fold, as not any one
Of all thy sisters might compare with thee:
Where be thy scholars now become, I trow?
Where are they vanished in such sudden sort,
That, whileas we do play upon our strings,
You stand still lazing, and have nought to do?

CLIO: Melpomine, make you a why of that?
I know full oft you have [in] Authors read,
The higher tree the sooner is his fall, … [I.Pro.60]
And they which first do flourish and bear sway,
Upon the sudden vanish clean away.

CALLIOPE: Mock on apace: my back is broad enough
To bear your flouts, as many as they be.
That year is rare that nere feels winter’s storms:
That tree is fertile which nere wanteth fruit;
And that same Muse hath heaped well in store
Which never wanteth clients at her door.
But yet, my sisters, when the surgent seas
Have ebbed their fill, their waves do rise again … [I.Pro.70]
And fill their banks up to the very brims;
And when my pipe hath eased herself a while,
Such store of suitors shall my seat frequent
That you shall see my scholars be not spent.

ERATO: Spent (quoth you), sister? Then we were to blame,
If we should say your scholars all were spent:
But pray now, tell me when your painful pen
Will rest enough?

MELPOMINE: When husbandmen shear hogs.

VENUS: [Coming forward.] Melpomine, Erato, and the rest, … [I.Pro.80]
From thickest shrubs dame Venus did espy
The mortal hatred which you jointly bear
Unto your sister high Calliope.
What, do you think if that the tree do bend,
It follows therefore that it needs must break?
And since her pipe a little while doth rest,
It never shall be able for to sound?
Yes, Muses, yes, if that she will vouchsafe
To entertain Dame Venus in her school,
And further me with her instructions, … [I.Pro.90]
She shall have scholars which will dain to be
In any other Muse’s Company.

CALLIOPE: Most sacred Venus, do you doubt of that?
Calliope would think her three times blessed
For to receive a Goddess in her school,
Especially so high an one as you,
Which rules the earth, and guides the heavens too.

VENUS: then sound your pipes, and let us bend our steps
Unto the top of high Parnassus hill,
And there together do our best devoir … [I.Pro.100]
For to describe Alphonsus’ warlike fame;
And in the manner of a Comedy,
Set down his noble valor presently.

CALLIOPE: As Venus wills, so bids Calliope.

MELPOMINE: And as you bid, your sisters do agree. [Exeunt.]

Scene I.1: Near Naples
[Enter Carinus the Father, and Alphonsus his son.]

CARINUS: My noble son, since first I did recount
The noble acts your predecessors did
In Aragon, against their warlike foes,
I never yet could see thee joy at all,
But hanging down thy head as malcontent,
Thy youthful days in mourning have been spent.
Tell me, Alphonsus: What might be the cause
That makes thee thus to pine away with care?
Hath old Carinus done thee any offense
In reck’ning up these stories unto thee? … [I.1.10]
What, nere a word but mum? Alphonsus, speak,
Unless your Father’s fatal day you seek.

ALPHONSUS: Although, dear father, I have often vowed
Nere to unfold the secrets of my heart
To any man or woman, who some ere
Dwells underneath the circle of the sky:
Yet do your words so conjure me, dear sire,
That needs I must fulfill that you require.
Then so it is: amongst the famous tales
Which you rehearsed done by our sires in war, … [I.1.20]
Whenas you came unto your father’s days,
With sobbing notes, with sighs and blubb’ring tears,
And much ado, at length you thus began:
‘Next to Alphonsus should my father come
For to possess the Diadem by right
Of Aragon, but that the wicked wretch
His younger brother, with aspiring mind,
By secret treason robbed him of his life,
And me his son of that which was my due.’
These words, my sire, did so torment my mind, … [I.1.30]
As had I been with Ixion in hell,
The ravening bird could never plague me worse;
For ever since my mind hath troubled been
Which way I might revenge this traitorous fact,
And that recover which is ours by right.

CARINUS: Ah my Alphonsus, never think on that.
In vain it is to strive against the stream:
The Crown is lost, and now in huckster’s hands,
And all our hope is cast into the dust.
Bridle these thoughts, and learn the same of me: … [I.1.40]
A quiet life doth pass an Emperie.

ALPHONSUS: Yet, noble father, ere Carinus’ brood
Shall brook his foe for to usurp his seat,
He’ll die the death with honor in the field,
And so his life and sorrows briefly end.
But did I know my froward fate were such
As I should fail in this my just attempt,
This sword, dear father, should the Author be
To make an end of this my Tragedy.
Therefore, sweet sire, remain you here a while … [I.1.50]
And let me walk my Fortune to try:
I do not doubt but ere the time be long,
I’ll quite his cost, or else myself will die.

CARINUS: My noble son, since that thy mind is such
For to revenge thy father’s foul abuse,
As that my words may not a whit prevail
To stay thy journey, go with happy fate;
And soon return unto thy father’s Cell
With such a train as Julius Caesar came
To noble Rome, whenas he had achieved … [I.1.60]
The mighty Monarch of the triple world.
Mean time Carinus in this silly grove
Will spend his days with prayers and orisons
To mighty Jove, to further thine intent:
Farewell, dear Son, Alphonsus, fare you well.

ALPHONSUS: And is he gone? Then hie, Alphonsus, hie,
To try thy fortune where thy fates do call:
A noble mind disdains to hide his head
And let his foes triumph in his overthrow.
[Enter Albinius. Alphonsus make as though thou goest out. Albinius say:]

ALBINIUS: What loit’ring fellow have we spied here? … [I.1.70]
Presume not, villain, further for to go,
Unless you do at length the same repent.
[Alphonsus comes towards Albinius.]

ALPHONSUS: ‘Villain’ sayst thou? Nay, ‘villain’ in thy throat:
What knowest thou, skipjack, whom thou villain call’st?

ALBINIUS: A common vassal I do villain call.

ALPHONSUS: That shall thou soon approve, persuade thyself,
Or else I’ll die, or else thou shalt die for me.

ALBINIUS: What, do I dream, or do my dazzling eyes
Deceive me? Is’t it Alphonsus that I see?
Doth now Medea use her wonted charms … [I.1.80]
For to delude Albinius’ fantasy?
Or doth black Pluto, King of dark Averne,
Seek [for] to flout me with his counterfeit?
His body like to Alphonsus’ framed is:
His face resembles much Alphonsus’ hue:
His noble mind declares him for no less.
‘Tis he indeed. Woe worth Albinius,
Whose babbling tongue hath caused his own annoy.
Why doth not Jove send from the glitt’ring skies
His Thunderbolts to chastise this offense? … [I.1.90]
Why doth dame Terra cease with greedy jaws
To swallow up Albinius presently?
What, shall I fly and hide my traitorous head
From stout Alphonsus whom I so misused?
Or shall I yield? Tush, yielding is in vain;
Nor can I fly, but he will follow me.
Then cast thyself down at his grace’s feet,
Confess thy fault, and ready make thy breast
To entertain thy well-deserved death. [Albinius kneels down.]

ALPHONSUS: What news, my friend? Why are you so blank, … [I.1.100]
That erst before did vaunt it to the skies?

ALBINIUS: Pardon, dear Lord! Albinius pardon craves
For this offense, which, by the heavens I vow,
Unwittingly I did unto your grace;
For had I known Alphonsus had been here,
Ere that my tongue had spoke so traitorously,
This hand should make my very soul to die.

ALPHONSUS: Rise us, my friend, thy pardon soon is got;
[Albinius rises up.]
But prithie, tell me what the cause might be
That in such sort thou erst upbraidest me? … [I.1.110]

ALBINIUS: Most mighty Prince, since first your father’s sire
Did yield his ghost unto the sisters three,
And old Carinus forced was to fly
His native soil and royal Diadem,
I, for because I seemed to complain
Against their treason, shortly was forewarned
Nere more to haunt the bounds of Aragon,
On pain of death: then like a man forlorn
I sought about to find some resting-place,
And at the length did hap upon this shore, … [I.1.120]
Where showing forth my cruel banishment,
By King Belinus I am succored.
But now, my Lord, to answer your demand:
It happens so that the usurping King
Of Aragon makes war upon this land
For certain tribute which he claimeth here,
Wherefore Belinus sent me round about
His Country for to gather up [his] men
For to withstand this most injurious foe;
Which being done, returning with the King, … [I.1.130]
Despitefully I did so taunt your grace,
Imagining you had some soldier been,
The which, for fear, had sneaked from the camp.

ALPHONSUS: Enough, Albinius, I do know thy mind:
But may it be that these thy happy news
Should be of truth, or have you forged them?

ALBINIUS: The gods forbid that ere Albinius’ tongue
Should once be found to forge a feigned tale,
Especially unto his sovereign Lord;
But if Alphonsus think that I do feign, … [I.1.140]
Stay here a while, and you shall plainly see
My words be true, whenas you do perceive
Our royal army march before your face,
The which, if’t please my Noble Lord to stay,
I’ll hasten on with all the speed I may.

ALPHONSUS: Make haste, Albinius, if you love my life;
But yet beware, whenas your Army comes,
You do not make as though you do me know,
For I a while a soldier base will be,
Until I find time more convenient … [I.1.150]
To show, Albinius, what is mine intent.

ALBINIUS: Whatere Alphonsus fittest doth esteem,
Albinius for his profit best will deem.

ALPHONSUS: Now do I see both Gods and fortune too
Do join their powers to raise Alphonsus’ fame;
For in this broil I do not greatly doubt
But that I shall my Cousin’s courage tame.
But see whereas Belinus’ Army comes,
And he himself, unless I guess awry:
Whoere it be, I do not pass a pin, … [I.1.160]
Alphonsus means his soldier for to be. [He stands aside.]

Scene I.2: The Camp of Belinus
[Enter Belinus King of Naples, Albinius, Fabius,
marching with their soldiers (and make a stand).

BELINUS: Thus far, my Lords, we trained have our Camp
For to encounter haughty Aragon,
Who with a mighty power of straggling mates
Hath traitorously assailed this our land,
And burning Towns, and sacking Cities fair,
Doth play the devil where some ere he comes.
Now, as we are informed of our Scouts,
He marcheth on unto our chiefest Seat,
Naples, I mean, that City of renown,
For to begirt it with his bands about; … [1.2.10]
And so at length, the which high Jove forbid,
To sack the same, as erst he other did.
If which should hap, Belinus were undone,
His country spoiled and all his subjects slain.
Wherefore your Sovereign thinketh it most meet
For to prevent the fury of the foe,
And Naples succor, that distressed Town,
By ent’ring in ere Aragon doth come,
With all our men, which will sufficient be
For to withstand their cruel battery. … [I.2.20]

ALBINIUS: The silly serpent, found by Country swain
And cut in pieces by his furious blows,
Yet if her head do ‘scape away untouched,
As many write, it very strangely goes
To fetch an herb, with which in little time
Her battered corpse again she doth conjoin;
But if by chance the plowman’s sturdy staff
Do hap to hit upon the Serpent’s head
And bruise the same, though all the rest be sound,
Yet doth the Silly Serpent lie for dead, … [I.2.30]
Nor can the rest of all her body serve
To find a salve which may her life preserve.
Even so, my Lord, if Naples once be lost,
Which is the head of all your grace’s land,
Easy it were for the malicious foe
To get the other Cities in their hand;
But if from them that Naples Town be free,
I do not doubt but safe the rest shall be.
And therefore, Mighty King, I think it best
To succor Naples rather than the rest. … [I.2.40]

BELINUS: ‘Tis bravely spoken: by my Crown I swear,
I like thy counsel and will follow it. [Point toward Alphonsus.]
But hark, Albinius, dost thou know the man
That doth so closely overthwart us stand?

ALBINIUS: Not I, my Lord, nor never saw him yet.

BELINUS: Then, prithee, go and ask him presently
What countryman he is, and why he comes
Into this place? Perhaps he is someone
That is sent hither as a secret spy
To hear and see in secret what we do. … [I.2.50]
[Albinius and Fabius go toward Alphonsus.]

ALBINIUS: My friend, what art thou, that so like a spy
Dost sneak about Belinus’ royal Camp?

ALPHONSUS: I am a man.

FABIUS: A man? We know the same:
But prithee, tell me, and set scoffing by:
What countryman thou art and why you came,
That we may soon resolve the King thereof?

ALPHONSUS: Why, say, I am a soldier.

FABIUS: Of whose band?

ALPHONSUS: Of his that will most wages to me give. … [I.2.60]

FABIUS: But will you be
Content to serve Belinus in his wars?

ALPHONSUS: Aye, if he’ll reward me as I do deserve,
And grant whatere I win, it shall be mine

ALBINIUS: Believe me, sir, your service costly is:
But stay a while, and I will bring you word
What King Belinus says unto the same.
[Albinius go towards Belinus.]

BELINUS: What news, Albinius? Who is that we see?

ALBINIUS: It is, my Lord, a soldier that you see, … [I.2.70]
Who fain would serve your grace in these your wars,
But that, I fear, his service is too dear.

BELINUS: Too dear, why so: what doth the soldier crave?

ALBINIUS: He craves, my Lord, all things that with his sword
He doth obtain, whatever that they be.

BELINUS: Content, my friend. If thou wilt succor me,
Whatere you get, that challenge as thine own,
Belinus gives it frankly unto thee,
Although it be the Crown of Aragon.
Come on, therefore, and let us hie apace … [I.2.80]
To Naples Town, whereas by this I know
Our foes have pitched their tents against our walls.

ALPHONSUS: March on, my Lord, for I will follow you,
And do not doubt but, ere the time be long,
I shall obtain the Crown of Aragon. [Exeunt.]


[Enter Belinus, Albinius, Fabius, Alphonsus, with the soldier; as
soon as they are in, strike up alarum a while, and then enter Venus

VENUS: Thus from the pit of pilgrim’s poverty
Alphonsus ‘gins by step and step to climb
Unto the top of friendly Fortune’s wheel:
From banished State, as you have plainly seen,
He is transformed into a soldier’s life
And marcheth in the Ensign of the King
Of worthy Naples, which Belinus hight;
Not for because that he doth love him so,
But that he may revenge him on his foe.
Now on the top of lusty barbed steed … [II.Pro.10]
He mounted is, in glittering Armor clad,
Seeking about the troops of Aragon,
For to encounter with his traitorous Niece,
How he doth speed, and what doth him befall:
Mark this our Act, for it doth show it all. [Exit Venus.]

Scene II.1: A Battle Field
[Strike up alarum. Enter Flaminius at one door, Alphonsus at
another; they fight; Alphonsus kill Flaminius and say

ALPHONSUS: Go pack thou hence unto the Stygian lake,
And make report unto thy traitorous sire
How well thou hast enjoyed the Diadem
Which he by treason set upon thy head.
And if he ask thee who did send thee down,
Alphonsus say, who now must wear thy Crown.

[Strike up alarum. Enter Laelius, who seeing that his King is slain,
upbraids Alphonsus in this sort.

LAELIUS: Traitor, how darest thou look me in the face,
Whose mighty King thou traitorously hast slain?
What, dost thou think Flaminius hath no friends
For to revenge his death on thee again? … [II.1.10]
Yes, be you sure that, ere you ‘scape from hence,
Thy gasping ghost shall bear him company;
Or else myself, fighting for his defense,
Will be content by those thy hands to die.

ALPHONSUS: Laelius, few words would better thee become,
Especially as now the case doth stand;
And didst thou know whom thou dost threaten thus,
We should you have more calmer out of hand:
For, Laelius, know that I Alphonsus am,
The son and heir to old Carinus, whom … [II.1.20]
The traitorous father of Flaminius
Did secretly bereave his Diadem.
But see the just revenge of mighty Jove!
The father dead, the son is likewise slain
By that man’s hand who they did count as dead,
Yet doth survive to wear the Diadem,
When they themselves accompany the ghosts
Which wander round about the Stygian fields.
[Laelius gaze upon Alphonsus.]
Muse not hereat, for it is true, I say:
I am Alphonsus, whom thou hast misused. … [II.1.30]

[LAELIUS]: The man whose death I did so oft lament? [Kneel down.]
Then pardon me for these uncourteous words,
The which I in my rage did utter forth,
Pricked by the duty of a loyal mind:
Pardon, Alphonsus, this my first offense,
And let me die if ere I fight again.

ALPHONSUS: Laelius, I fain would pardon this offense,
And eke accept thee to my grace again,
But that I fear that, when I stand in need
And want your help, you will your Lord betray: … [II.1.40]
How say you, Laelius: May I trust to thee?

LAELIUS: Aye, noble Lord, by all the Gods I vow;
For first shall heavens want stars, and foaming seas
Want wat’ry drops, before I’ll traitor be
Unto Alphonsus, whom I honor so.

ALPHONSUS: Well then, arise; and for because I’ll try
If that thy words and deeds be both alike,
Go haste and fetch the youths of Aragon,
Which now I hear have turned their heels and fled:
Tell them your chance, and bring them back again … [II.1.50]
Into this wood, where in ambushment lie
Until I send or come for you myself.

LAELIUS: I will, my Lord. [Exit Laelius.]

ALPHONSUS: Full little thinks Belinus and his Peers
What thoughts Alphonsus casteth in his mind;
For if they did, they would not greatly haste
To pay the same the which they promised me.
[Enter Belinus, Albinius, Fabius, with their solders, marching.]

BELINUS: Like simple sheep, when shepherd absent is
Far from his flock, assailed by greedy wolves,
Do scatt’ring fly about, some here, some there, … [II.1.60]
To keep their bodies from their ravening jaws,
So do the fearful youths of Aragon
Run round about the green and pleasant plains,
And hide their heads from Neapolitans:
Such terror have their strong and sturdy blows
Struck to their hearts, as for a world of gold
I warrant you they will not come again.
But, noble Lords, where is the Knight become
Which made the blood besprinkle all the place
Whereas he did encounter with his foe? … [II.1.70]
My friend, Albinius, know you where he is?

ALBINIUS: Not I, my Lord, for since in thickest ranks
I saw him chase Flaminius at the heels,
I never yet could set mine eyes on him.
[ Albinius spies out Alphonsus, and shows him to Belinus.]
But see, my Lord, whereas the warrior stands,
Or else my sight doth fail me at this time.

BELINUS: ‘Tis he indeed, who, as I do suppose,
Hath slain the King, or else some other Lord;
For well I wot a carcass I do see
Hard at his feet, lie struggling on the ground. … [II.1.80]
[Belinus and Albinius go towards Alphonsus.]
Come on, Albinius, we will try the truth.
[Belinus say to Alphonsus:]
Hail to the noble victor of our foes.

ALPHONSUS: Thanks, mighty Prince, but yet I seek not this.
It is not words must recompense my pain,
But deeds: when first I took up Arms for you,
Your promise was, whatere my sword did win
In fight, as his Alphonsus should it crave.
[Show Belinus Flaminius, who lieth all this while dead at his feet.]
See then where lies thy foe Flaminius,
Whose Crown my sword hath conquered in the field:
Therefore, Belinus, make no long delay, … [II.1.90]
But that discharge you promised for to pay.

BELINUS: Will nothing else satisfy thy conquering mind
Besides the Crown? Well, since thou hast it won,
Thou shalt it have, though far against my will.
[Alphonsus sit in the Chair; Belinus takes the Crown off
Flaminius’ head and puts it on that of Alphonsus.
Here doth Belinus Crown thee with his hand
The King of Aragon. What, are you pleased?
[Sound Trumpets and Drums within.]

ALPHONSUS: Not so, Belinus, till you promise me
All things belonging to the royal Crown
Of Aragon, and make your Lordings swear
For to defend me to their utmost power … [II.1.100]
Against all men that shall gainsay the same.

BELINUS: Mark, what belonged erst unto the Crown
Of Aragon, that challenge as thine own:
Belinus gives it frankly unto thee,
And swears by all the powers of glittering skies
To do my best for to maintain the same
So that it be not prejudicial
Unto mine honor, or my Country soil.

ALBINIUS: And by the sacred seat of mighty Jove,
Albinius swears that first he’ll die the death, … [II.1.110]
Before he’ll see Alphonsus suffer wrong.

FABIUS: What erst Albinius vowed, we jointly vow.

ALPHONSUS: Thanks, mighty Lords, but yet I greatly fear
That very few will keep the oaths they swear.
But what, Belinus, why stand you so long
And cease from offering homage unto me?
What, know you not that I thy sovereign am,
Crowned by thee and all thy other Lords,
And now confirmed by your solemn oaths? … [II.1.120]
Feed not thyself with fond persuasions,
But presently come yield thy Crown to me
And do me homage, or by heavens I swear
I’ll force thee to it maugre all thy train.

BELINUS: How now, base brat! What, are thy wits thine own,
That thou darest thus abraid me in my land?
‘Tis best for thee these speeches to recall,
Or else by Jove I’ll make thee to repent
That ere thou settest thy foot in Naple’s soil.

ALPHONSUS: ‘Base brat,” sayest thou? As good a man as thou.
But say I came but of a base descent, … [II.1.130]
My deeds shall make my glory for to shine
As clear as Luna in a winter’s night.
But for because thou braggest so of thy birth,
I’ll see how it shall profit thee anon.

FABIUS: Alphonsus, cease from these thy threat’ning words,
And lay aside this thy presumptuous mind,
Or else be sure thou shalt the same repent.

ALPHONSUS: How now, sir boy, will you be prattling too?
‘Tis best for thee to hold thy tattling tongue,
Unless I send someone to scourge thy breech: … [II.1.140]
Why, then, I see, ’tis time to look about,
When every boy Alphonsus dares control;
But be they sure, ere Phoebus’ golden beams
Have compassed the circle of the sky,
I’ll clog their tongues, since nothing else will serve
To keep those vilde and threatening speeches in.
Farewell, Belinus, look thou to thyself:
Alphonsus means to have thy Crown ere night. [Exit Alphonsus.]

BELINUS: Is he gone? The devil break his neck,
The fiends of hell torment his traitorous corpse. … [II.1.150]
Is this the quittance of Belinus’ grace,
Which he did show unto that thankless wretch,
That runagate, that rakehell, yea that thief?
For well I wot, he hath robbed me of a Crown.
If ever he had sprung from gentle blood,
He would not thus misuse his favorer.

ALBINIUS: ‘That runagate,’ ‘that rachell,’ ‘yea, that thief”?
Stay there, sir King, your mouth runs over-much:
It ill becomes the subject for to use
Such traitorous terms against his sovereign. … [II.1.160]
Know thou, Belinus, that Carinus’ son
Is neither rachell, [no], nor runagate.
But be thou sure that ere the darksome night
Do drive God Phoebus to his Thetis‘ lap,
Both thou and all the rest of this thy train
Shall well repent the words which you have sayne.

BELINUS: What, traitorous villain, dost thou threaten me?
Lay hold on him, and see he do not ‘scape:
I’ll teach the slave to know to whom he speaks.

[ALBINIUS]: To thee I speak, and to thy fellows all; … [II.1.170]
And though as now you have me in your power,
Yet doubt I not but that in little space
These eyes shall see thy treason recompensed,
And then I mean to vaunt our victory.

BELINUS: Nay, proud Albinius, never build on that,
For though the Gods do chance for to appoint
Alphonsus victor of Belinus’ land,
Yet shalt thou never live to see that day; —
And therefore, Fabius, stand not lingering,
But presently slash off his traitorous head. … [II.1.180]

ALBINIUS: Slash off his head? As thou Albinius’ head
Were then so easy to be slashed off.
In faith, sir, no: when you are gone and dead,
I hope to flourish like the pleasant spring.

BELINUS: Why, how now, Fabius? What, do you stand in doubt
To do the deed? What fear you? Who dares seek
For to revenge his death on thee again,
Since that Belinus did command it so?
Or are you waxed so dainty that you dare
Not use your sword for staining of your hands? [II.1.190]
If it be so, then let me see thy sword,
And I will be his butcher for this time.
[Fabius gives Belinus thy sword drawn; Belinus say as followeth.]
Now, sir Albinius, are you of the mind
That erst you were? What, do you look to see
And triumph in Belinus’ overthrow?
I hope the very sight of this my blade
Hath changed your mind into another tune.

ALBINIUS: Not so, Belinus, I am constant still;
My mind is like to the Asbeston stone,
Which, if it once be heat in flames of fire, … [II.1.200]
Denieth to becomen cold again.
Even so am I, and shall be till I die;
And though I should see Atropos appear
With knife in hand to slit my throat in twain,
Yet nere Albinius should persuaded be
But that Belinus he should vanquished see.

BELINUS: Nay, then, Albinius, since that words are vain
For to persuade you from this heresy,
This sword shall sure put you out of doubt.
[Belinus offers to strike off Albinius’ head: strike up alarum; enter Alphonsus
and his men: fly Belinus and Fabius, follow Alphonsus and Albinius.

Scene II.2
[Enter Laelius, Miles, and his servants.]

LAELIUS: My noble Lords of Aragon, I know
You wonder much what might the occasion be
That Laelius, which erst did fly the field,
Doth egg you forwards now unto the wars;
But when you hear my reason, out of doubt
You’ll be content with this my rash attempt.
When first our King, Flaminius I do mean,
Did set upon the Neapolitans,
The worst of you did know and plainly see
How far they were unable to withstand … [II.2.10]
The mighty forces of our royal Camp,
Until such time as froward fates we thought —
Although the fates ordained it for our gain —
Did send a stranger stout, whose sturdy blows
And force alone did cause our overthrow.
But to our purpose: this same martial Knight
Did hap to hit upon Flaminius,
And lent our King then such a friendly blow
As that his gaping ghost to Limbo went:
Which when I saw, and seeking to revenge, … [II.2.20]
My noble Lords, did hap on such a prize
As never King nor Kaisar got the like.

MILES: Laelius, of force we must confess to thee,
We wondered all, whenas you did persuade
Us to return unto the wars again;
But since our marvel is increased much
By these your words, which sound of happiness,
Therefore, good Laelius, make no tarrying,
But soon unfold thy happy chance to us.

LAELIUS: Then, friends and fellow soldiers, hark to me. … [II.2.30]
When Laelius thought for to revenge his King
On that same Knight, instead of mortal foe
I found him for to be our chiefest friend.

MILES: Our chiefest friend? I hardly can believe
That he, which made such bloody massacres
Of stout Italians, can in any point
Bear friendship to the Country or the King.

LAELIUS: As for your Kind, Miles, I hold with you,
He bear no friendship to Flaminius,
But hated him as bloody Atropos. … [II.2.40]
But for your country, Laelius doth avow
He loves as well as any other land:
Yes sure he loves it best of all the world;
And for because you shall not think that I
Do say the same without a reason why,
Know that the Knight Alphonsus hath to name,
Both Son and heir to old Carinus, whom
Flaminius’ sire bereaved of his Crown:
Who did not seek the ruin of our host
For any envy he did bear to us, … [II.2.50]
But to revenge him on his mortal foe,
Which by the help of high celestial Jove
He hath achiev’d with honor in the field.

MILES: Alphonsus, man? I’ll nere persuaded be
That ere Alphonsus may survive again,
Who with Carinus many years ago
Was said to wander in the Stygian fields.

LAELIUS: Truth, Noble Miles: these mine ears have heard,
For certainty reported unto me,
That old Carinus with his peerless son … [II.2.60]
Had felt the sharpness of the sisters’ shears;
And had I not of late Alphonsus seen
In good estate, though all the world should say
He is alive, I would not credit them;
But, fellow soldiers, wend you back with me,
And let us lurk within the secret shade
Which he himself appointed unto us;
And if you find my words to be untruth,
Then let me die to recompense the wrong.

[Strike up alarum: Enter Albinius with his sword drawn, and say:]

ALBINIUS: Laelius, make haste: soldiers of Aragon, … [II.2.70]
Set ling’ring by, and come and help your King.
I mean Alphonsus, who, whilest that he did
Pursue Belinus at the very heels,
Was suddenly environed about
With all the troops of mighty Milan land.

MILES: What news is this? And is it very so?
Is our Alphonsus yet in human state,
Whom all the world did judge for to be dead?
Yet can I scarce give credit to the same.
Give credit? Yes, and since the Milan Duke … [II.2.80]
Hath broke his league of friendship, be he sure,
Ere Cynthia, the shining lamp of night,
Doth scale the heavens with her horned head,
Both he and his shall very plainly see
The league is burst that caused long the glee.

LAELIUS: And could the traitor harbor in his breast
Such mortal treason gainst his sovereign,
As when he should with fire and sword defend
Him from his foes, he seeks his overthrow?
March on, my friends: I nere shall joy at all … [II.2.90]
Until I see that bloody traitor’s fall. [Exeunt.]
[Strike up alarum: fly Belinus, follow Laelius: fly Fabius,Albinius: fly the Duke of Milan, follow Miles.]



[Strike up alarum: Enter Venus.]

[VENUS]: No sooner did Alphonsus with his troop
Set on the soldiers of Belinus’ band,
But that the fury of his sturdy blows
Did strike such terror to their daunted minds
That glad was he which could escape away
With life and limb, forth of that bloody fray.
Belinus flies unto the Turkish soil,
To crave the aid of Amurack their King,
Unto the which he willingly did consent.
And sends Belinus, with two other Kings, … [III.Pro.10]
To know God Mahomet’s pleasure in the same:
Mean time the Empress by Medea’s help
Did use such charms that Amurack did see,
In soundest sleep, what afterward should hap.
How Amurack did recompense her pain,
With mickle more, this Act shall show you plain. [Exit Venus.]

Scene III. 1
[Enter one, carrying two crowns upon a Crest:
Alphonsus, Albinius, Laelius and Miles, with their soldiers.

ALPHONSUS: Welcome, brave youths of Aragon, to me,
Yea, welcome, Miles, Laelius and the rest,
Whose prowess alone hath been the only cause
That we, like victors, have subdued our foes.
Lord, what a pleasure was it to my mind
To see Belinus, which not long before
Did with his threat’nings terrify the Gods,
Now scud apace from warlike Laelius’ blows.
The Duke of Milan, he increased our sport,
Who doubting that his force was over-weak … [III.1.10]
For to withstand, Miles, thy sturdy arm,
Did give more credence to his frisking skips
Than to the sharpness of his cutting blade.
What Fabius did to pleasure us withal,
Albinius knows as well as I myself;
For well I wot, if that thy tired steed
Had been as fresh and swift in foot as his,
He should have felt, yea known for certainty,
To check Alphonsus did deserve to die.
Briefly, my friends and fellow peers in arms, … [III.1.20]
The worst of you deserve such mickle praise
As that my tongue denies for to set forth
The demi-parcel of your valiant deeds;
So that, perforce, I must by duty be
Bound to you all for this your courtesy.

MILES: Not so, my Lord, for if our willing arms
Have pleasured you so much as you do say,
We have done nought but that becometh us
For to defend our mighty sovereign.
As for my part, I count my labor small … [III.1.30]
Yea though it had been twice as much again,
Since that Alphonsus doth accept thereof.

ALPHONSUS: Thanks, worthy Miles: least (that) all the world
Should count Alphonsus thankless for to be,
Laelius sit down, and Miles sit by him,
And that receive the which your swords have won.
[Sit down Laelius and Miles.]
First, for because thou, Laelius, in these broils,
By martial might didst proud Belinus chase
From troop to troop, from side to side about,
And never ceased from this thy swift pursuit … [III.1.40]
Until thou hadst obtain’d his royal Crown,
Therefore I say, I’ll do thee nought but right,
And give thee that [the] which thou well hast won.

[Set the Crown on his head.]

Here doth Alphonsus Crown thee, Laelius, King
Of Naples Town, with all dominions
That erst belonged to our traitorous foe,
That proud Belinus, in his regiment.

[Sound Trumpets and Drums.]

Miles, thy share the Milan Dukedom is,
For, well I wot, thy sword deserved no less; [Set the Crown on his head.]
The which Alphonsus frankly giveth thee, … [III.1.50]
In presence of his warlike men-at-arms;
And if that any stomach this my deed,
Alphonsus can revenge thy wrong with speed.

[Sound Trumpets and Drums.]

Now to Albinius, which in all my toils
I have both faithful, yea and friendly found:
Since that the gods and friendly Fates assign
This present time to me to recompense
The sundry pleasures thou hast done to me,
Sit down by them, and on thy faithful head

[Take the Crown from thy own head.]

Receive the Crown of peerless Aragon. … [III.1.60]

ALBINIUS: Pardon, dear Lord, Albinius at this time:
It ill becomes me for to wear a Crown
Whenas my Lord is destitute himself.
Why, high Alphonsus, if I should receive
This Crown of you, the which high Jove forbid,
Where would yourself obtain a Diadem?
Naples is gone: Milan possessed is,
And nought is left for you but Aragon.

ALPHONSUS: And nought is left for me but Aragon?
Yea, surely, yes, my Fates have so decreed, … [III.1.70]
That Aragon should be too base a thing
For to obtain Alphonsus for her King.
What, hear you not how that our scatter’d foes,
Belinus, Fabius, and the Milan Duke,
Are fled for succor to the Turkish Court?
And think you not that Amurack their King
Will, with the mightiest power of all his land,
Seek to revenge Belinus’ overthrow?
Then doubt I not but, ere these broils do end,
Alphonsus shall possess the Diadem … [III.1.80]
That Amurack now wears upon his head.
Sit down therefore, and that receive of me
The which the Fates appointed unto thee.

ALBINIUS: Thou King of heaven, which by thy power divine
Dost see the secrets of each liver’s heart,
Bear record now with what unwilling mind
I do receive the Crown of Aragon.
[Albinius sit down by Laelius and Miles;set the Crown on his head, and say]

ALPHONSUS: Arise, Albinius, King of Aragon,
Crowned by me, who, till my gasping ghost
Do part asunder from my breathless corpse, … [III.1.90]
Will be thy shield against all men alive
That for thy Kingdom any way do strive.
[Sound Trumpets and Drums.]
Now since we have, in such an happy hour,
Confirmed three Kings, come, let us march with speed
Into the City, for to celebrate
With mirth and joy this blissful festival. [Exeunt omnes.]

Scene III.2: Palace of Amurath (Amurack) at Constantinople

[Enter Amurack the great Turk, Belinus, Fabius, Arcastus King of Moors,
Claramount King of Barbary, Bajazet a Lord, with their trains

AMURACK: Welcome, Belinus, to thy cousin’s Court,
Whose late arrival in such posting pace
Doth bring both joy and sorrow to us all:
Sorrow because the Fates have been so false,
To let Alphonsus drive thee from thy land;
And joy, since that now mighty Mahomet
Hath given me cause to recompense at full
The sundry pleasures I receiv’d of thee.
Therefore, Belinus, do but ask and have,
For Amurack doth grant whatere you crave. … [III.2.10]

BELINUS: Thou second Sun, which with thy glimsing beams
Dost clarify each corner of the earth,
Belinus comes not, as erst Midas did,
To mighty Bacchus, to desire of him
That whatsoere at any time he touched
Might turned be to gold incontinent.
Nor do I come as Jupiter did erst
Unto the Palace of Amphitrion,
For any fond or foul concupiscence,
Which I do bear to Alcmena‘s hue. … [III.2.20]
But as poor Saturn, forced by mighty Jove
To fly his Country, banished and forlorn,
Did crave the aid of Troos, King of Troy,
So comes Belinus to high Amurack;
And if he can but once your aid obtain,
He turns with speed to Naples back again.
AMURACK: My aid, Belinus? Do you doubt of that?
If all the men-at-arms of Africa,
Of Asia likewise, will sufficient be
To press the pomp of that usurping mate, … [III.2.30]
Assure thyself, thy Kingdom shall be thine,
If Mahomet say aye unto the same;
For were I sure to vanquish all our foes,
And find such spoils in ransacking their Tents
As never any Kaiser did obtain,
Yet would I not set foot forth of this land
If Mahomet our journey did withstand.

BELINUS: Nor would Belinus, for King Croesus’ trash,
Wish Amurack [so] to displease the Gods,
In pleasuring me in such a trifling toy. … [III.2.40]
Then, mighty Monarch, if it be thy will,
Get their consents, and then the act fulfill.

AMURACK: You counsel well; therefore, Belinus, haste;
And Claramount, go bear his company,
With King Arcastus, to the City walls:
Then bend with speed to the darksome grove
Where Mahomet this many a hundred year
Hath prophesied unto our ancestors.
Tell to his Priests that Amurack your King
Is now selecting all his men-at-arms … [III.2.50]
To set upon that proud Alphonsus’ troop.
The cause you know, and can inform him well,
That makes me take these bloody broils in hand;
And say that I desire their sacred God,
That Mahomet which ruleth all the skies
To send me word, and that most speedily,
Which of us shall obtain the victory.

[Exeunt omnes, praeter Bajazet and Amurack.]

You, Bajazet, go post away apace
To Syria, Scythia and Albania,
To Babylon and Mesopotamia, … [III.2.60]
Asia, Armenia, and all other lands
Which owe their homage to high Amurack:
Charge all their Kings with expedition
To gather up the chiefest men-at-arms
Which now remain in their dominions,
And on the twentie[th] day of the same month,
To come and wait on Amurack their King
At his chief city Constantinople.
Tell them, moreover, that who so doth fail,
Nought else but death from prison shall him bail. … [III.2.70]

[Exit Bajazet. As soon as he is gone, sound music within.]

What heavenly Music soundeth in my ear?
Peace, Amurack, and hearken to the same.

[Sound music, hearken Amurack, and fall a sleep.Medea, Fausta the Empress, Iphigina her daughter.]

MEDEA: Now have our charms fulfilled our minds full well:
High Amurack is lulled fast a sleep,
And doubt I not but, ere he wakes again,
You shall perceive Medea did not gibe
Whenas she put this practice in your mind:
Sit, worthy Fausta, at thy spouse his feet.
[Fausta and Iphigina sit down at Amurack’s feet.]
Iphigina, sit thou on the other side:
Whatere you see, be not aghast thereat, … [III.2.80]
But bear in mind what Amurack doth chat.

[Medea do ceremonies belonging to conjuring, and say]:
Thou which wert wont in Agamemnon’s days
To utter forth Apollo’s Oracles
At sacred Delphos, Calchas I do mean,
I charge thee come: all ling’ring set aside,
Unless the penance you thereof abide.
I conjure thee by Pluto’s loathsome lake,
By all the hags which harbor in the same,
By stinking Styx, and filthy Phlegeton,
To come with speed, and truly to fulfill … [III.2.90]
That which Medea to thee straight shall will.

[Rise Calchas up, in a white surplice and a Cardinal’s Miter, and say]:

CALCHAS: Thou wretched witch: when wilt thou make an end
Of troubling us with these thy cursed Charms?
What meanst thou thus to call me from my grave?
Shall nere my ghost obtain his quiet rest?

MEDEA: Yes, Calchas, yes, your rest doth now approach:
Medea means to trouble thee no more,
Whenas thou hast fulfilled her mind this once.
Go, get thee hence to Pluto back again,
And there enquire of the Destinies … [III.2.100]
How Amurack shall speed in these his wars:
Peruse their books, and mark what is decreed
By Jove himself, and all his fellow Gods;
And when thou knowst the certainty thereof,
By fleshless visions show it presently
To Amurack, in pain of penalty.

CALCHAS: Forced by thy charm, though with unwilling Mind,
I haste to hell, the certainty to find.
[Calchas sink down where you came up.]

MEDEA: Now, peerless Princes, I must needs be gone;
My hasty business calls me from this place. … [III.2.110]
There resteth nought but that you bear in mind
What Amurack in this his fit doth say;
For mark: what dreaming, Madam, he doth prate,
Assure yourself that that shall be his fate.

FAUSTA: Though very loath to let thee so depart,
Farewell, Medea, easer of my heart. [Exit Medea.]

[Sound Instruments within: Amurack as it were in a dream, say.]

AMURACK: What, Amurack, dost thou begin to nod?
Is this the care that thou hast of thy wars?
As when thou shouldst be prancing of thy steed,
To egg thy soldiers forward in thy wars, … [III.2.120]
Thou sittest moping by the fireside?
See where thy Viceroys grovel on the ground;
Look where Belinus breatheth forth his ghost;
Behold by millions how thy men do fall
Before Alphonsus, like to silly sheep.
And canst thou stand still lazing in this sort?
No, proud Alphonsus, Amurack doth fly
To quail thy courage, and that speedily.
[Sound Instruments a while within, and then Amurack say.]
And doest thou think, thou proud injurious God,
Mahound I mean, since thy vain prophecies … [III.2.130]
Led Amurack into this doleful case,
To have his Princely feet in irons clapt,
Which erst the proudest kings were forced to kiss,
That thou shalt ‘scape unpunished for the same?
No, no, as soon as by the help of Jove
I ‘scape this bondage, down go all thy groves;
Thy altars tumble round about the streets;
And whereas erst we sacrificed to thee,
Now all the Turks thy mortal foes shall be.
[Sound Instruments a while within, Amurack say.]
Behold the Gem and Jewel of mine age, … [III.2.140]
See where she comes, whose heavenly majesty
Doth far surpass the brave and gorgeous pace
Which Cytherea, daughter unto Jove,
Did put in ure whenas she had obtained
The golden Apple at the shepherd’s hands.
See, worthy Fausta, where Alphonsus stands,
Whose valiant courage could not daunted be
With all the men-at-arms of Africa:
See now he stands, as one that lately saw
Medusa’s head, or Gorgon’s hoary hue. … [III.2.150]
[Sound Instruments a while within, Amurack say.]
And can it be that it may happen so?
Can Fortune prove so friendly unto me
As that Alphonsus loves Iphigina?
The match is made, the wedding is decreed.
Sound trumpets, ho! Strike drums for mirth and glee:
And three times welcome son-in-law to me.

[Fausta rise up as it were in a fury, wake Amurack and say.]

FAUSTA: Fie, Amurack, what wicked words be these?
How canst thou look thy Fausta in her face,
Whom thou hast wronged in this shameful sort?
And are the vows so solemnly you sware … [III.2.160]
Unto Belinus, my most friendly niece,
Now washed so clearly from thy traitorous heart?
Is all the rancor which you erst did bear
Unto Alphonsus worn so out of mind
As, where thou shouldest pursue him to [the] death,
You seek to give our daughter to his hands?
The Gods forbid that such a heinous deed
With my consent should ever be decreed;
And rather than thou shouldst it bring to pass,
If all the army of Amazons … [III.2.170]
Will be sufficient to withhold the same,
Assure thyself that Fausta means to fight
‘Gainst Amurack, for to maintain the right.
IPHIGINA: Yes, mother, say — which Mahomet forbid —
That in this conflict you should have the foil,
Ere that Alphonsus should be called my spouse,
This heart, this hand, yea and this blade, should be
A readier means to finish that decree.

[Amurack rise in a rage from thy chair.]

AMURACK: What threat’ning words thus thunder in mine ears?
Or who are they amongst the mortal troops … [III.2.180]
That dares presume to use such threats to me?
The proudest Kings and Kaisers of the land
Are glad to feed me in my fantasy;
And shall I suffer, then, each prattling dame
For to upbraid me in this spiteful sort?
No, by the heavens, first will I lose my Crown,
My wife, my children, yea, my life and all;
And therefore, Fausta, thou which Amurack
Did tender erst, as the apple of mine eye,
Avoid my court, and if thou lov’st thy life, … [III.2.190]
Approach not nigh unto my regiment.
As for this carping girl Iphigina,
Take her with thee to bear thee company;
And in my land, I rede, be seen no more,
For if you do, you both shall die therefore.[Exit Amurack.]

FAUSTA: Nay then, I see, ’tis time to look about:
Delay is dangerous and procureth harm.
The wanton colt is tamed in his youth:
Wounds must be cured when they be fresh and green;
And pleurisies, when they begin to breed, … [III.2.200]
With little care are driven away with speed.
Had Fausta, then, when Amurack begun
With spiteful speeches to control and check,
Sought to prevent it by her martial force,
This banishment had never hapt to me.
But the Echinus, fearing to be gored,
Doth keep her younglings in her paunch so long,
Til, when their pricks be waxen long and sharp,
They put their dam at length to double pain;
And I, because I loathed the broils of Mars, … [III.2.210]
Bridled my thoughts and pressed down my rage,
In recompense of which my good intent
I have received this woeful banishment.
Woeful, said I? Nay, happy I did mean,
If that be happy which doth set one free;
For by this means I do not doubt erelong,
But Fausta shall with ease revenge her wrong.
Come, daughter, come: my mind foretelleth me
That Amurack shall soon requited be. [Exeunt.]

Scene III. 3: A Grove

[Enter Fausta with Iphigina: Medea meet her and say.]

MEDEA: Fausta, what means this sudden flight of yours?
Why do you leave your husband’s princely Court,
And all alone pass through these thickest groves,
More fit to harbor brutish savage beasts
Than to receive so high a Queen as you?
Although your credit would not stay your steps
From bending them into these darkish dens,
Yet should the danger, which is imminent
To everyone which passeth by these paths,
Keep you at home with fair Iphigina. … [III.3.10]
What foolish toy hath tickled you to this?
I greatly fear some hap hath hit amiss.

FAUSTA: No toy, Medea, tickled Fausta’s head,
Nor foolish fancy led me to these groves;
But earnest business eggs my trembling steps
To pass all dangers, whatsoere they be.
I banished am, Medea, I which erst
Was Empress over all the triple world,
Am banished now from palace and from pomp.
But if the Gods be favorers to me, … [III.3.20]
Ere twenty days I will revenged be.

MEDEA: I thought as much, when first from thickest leaves
I saw you trudging in such posting pace.
But to the purpose: what may be the cause
Of this [so] strange and sudden banishment?

FAUSTA: The cause, ask you? A simple cause, God wot:
‘Twas neither treason nor yet felony,
But for because I blamed his foolishness.

MEDEA: I hear you say so, but I greatly fear,
Ere that your tale be brought unto an end, … [III.3.30]
You’ll prove yourself the author of the same.
But pray, be brief: what folly did your spouse?
And how will you revenge your wrong on him?

FAUSTA: What folly, quoth you? Such as never yet
Was hear or seen since Phoebus first gan shine.
You know how he was gathering in all haste
His men-at-arms, to set upon the troop
Of proud Alphonsus: yea, you well do know
How you and I did do the best we could
To make him show us in his drowsy dream … [III.3.40]
What afterward should happen in his wars.
Much talk he had, which now I have forgot.
But at the length, this surely was decreed,
How that Alphonsus and Iphigina
Should be conjoined in Juno’s sacred rites.
Which when I heard, as one that did despise
That such a traitor should be son to me,
I did rebuke my husband Amurack;
And since my words could take no better place,
My sword with help of all Amazons … [III.3.50]
Shall make him soon repent his foolishness.

MEDEA: This is the cause, then, of your banishment?
And now you go unto Amazone
To gather all your maidens in array,
To set upon the mighty Amurack?
Oh foolish Queen, what meant you by this talk?
Those prattling speeches have undone you all.
Do you disdain to have that mighty Prince,
I mean Alphonsus, counted for your son?
I tell you, Fausta, he is born to be … [III.3.60]
The ruler of a mighty Monarchy.
I must confess the powers of Amurack
Be great: his confines stretch both far and near;
Yet are they not the third part of the lands
Which shall be ruled by Alphonsus’ hands,
And yet you dain to call him son-in-law.
But when you see his sharp and cutting sword
Piercing the heart of this your gallant girl,
You’ll curse the hour wherein you did deny
To join Alphonsus with Iphigina. … [III.3.70]

FAUSTA: The Gods forbid that ere it happen so.

MEDEA: Nay, never pray, for it must happen so.

FAUSTA: And is there, then, no remedy for it?

MEDEA: No, none but one, and that you have forsworn.

FAUSTA: As though an oath can bridle so my mind
As that I dare not break a thousand oaths
For to eschew the danger imminent.
Speak, good Medea, tell that way to me;
And I will do it, whatsoere it be.

MEDEA: Then, as already you have decreed, … [III.3.80]
Pack to your country, and in readiness
Select the army of Amazons:
When you have done, march with your female troop
To Naples Town, to succor Amurack;
And so, by marriage of Iphigina,
You soon shall drive the danger clean away.

IPHIGINA: So shall we soon eschew Caribdis lake,
And headlong fall to Scylla’s greedy gulf.
I vowed before, and now do vow again,
Before I wed Alphonsus, I’ll be slain. … [III.3.90]

MEDEA: In vain it is to strive against the stream:
Fates must be followed, and the God’s decree
Must needs take place in every kind of cause.
Therefore, fair maid, bridle these brutish thoughts,
And learn to follow what the fates assign.
When Saturn heard that Jupiter his son
Should drive him headlong from his heavenly seat
Down to the bottom of the dark Avern,
He did command his mother presently
To do to death the young and guiltless child: [III.3.100]
But what of that? The mother loathed in heart
For to commit so vile a massacre:
Yea, Jove did live, and as the fates did say,
From heavenly seat drave Saturn clean away.
What did avail the Castle all of Steel,
The which Acrisius caused to be made
To keep his daughter Danae clogged in?
She was with child for all her Castle’s force;
And by that child Acrisius, her sire,
Was after slain, so did the fates require. … [III.3.110]
A thousand examples I could bring hereof;
But Marble stones [do] need no coloring,
And that which everyone doth know for truth
Needs no examples to confirm the same.
That which the fates appoint must happen so,
Though heavenly Jove and all the Gods say no.

FAUSTA: Iphigina, she sayeth nought but the truth:
Fates must be followed in their just decrees;
And therefore, setting all delays aside,
Come, let us wend unto Amazone … [III.3.120]
And gather up our forces out of hand.

IPHIGINA: Since Fausta wills, and fates do so command,
Iphigina will never it withstand. [Exit omnes.]



[Enter Venus.]

VENUS: Thus have you seen how Amurack himself,
Fausta his wife, and every other King
Which hold their scepters at the Turk his hands,
Are now in arms, intending to destroy
And bring to nought the Prince of Aragon.
Charms have been used by wise Medea’s art,
To know before what afterward shall hap;
And King Belinus with high Claramount,
Joined to Arcastus, which with Princely pomp
Doth rule and govern all the warlike Moors, … [IV.Pro.10]
Are sent as legates to god Mahomet,
To know his counsel in these high affairs.
Mahound, provoked by Amurack’s discourse,
Which as you heard, he in his dream did use,
Denies to play the Prophet any more;
But by the long entreaty of his Priests,
He prophesies in such a crafty sort
As that the hearers needs must laugh for sport.
Yet poor Belinus, which his fellow Kings,
Did give such credence to that forged tale … [IV.Pro.20]
As that they lost their dearest lives thereby,
And Amurack became a prisoner
Unto Alphonsus, as straight shall appear. [Exit Venus.]

Scene IV.1: Temple of Mahomet

[Let there be a brazen Head set in the middle of the place
behind the Stage, out of the which cast flames of fire,
drums rumble within: Enter two Priests

1 PRIEST: My fellow Priest of Mahound’s holy house,
What can you judge of these strange miracles
Which daily happen in this sacred seat? [Drums rumble within.]
Hark what a rumbling rattleth in our ears.
[Cast flames of fire forth of the brazen head.]
See flakes of fire proceeding from the mouth
Of Mahomet, that God of peerless power.
Nor can I tell, with all the wit I have,
What Mahomet by these his signs doth crave.

2 PRIEST: Thrice ten times Phoebus with his golden beams
Hath compassed the circle of the sky: … [IV.1.10]
Thrice ten times Ceres hath her workmen hired,
And filled her barns with fruitful crops of Corn
Since first in Priesthood I did lead my life;
Yet in this time I never heard before
Such fearful sounds, or saw such wondrous sights;
Nor can I tell, with all the wit I have,
What Mahomet by these his signs doth crave.

[Speak out of the brazen Head.]

MAHOMET: You cannot tell, nor will you seek to know:
Oh perverse Priests[s], how careless are you waxt,
As when my foes approach unto my gates, … [IV.1.20]
You stand still talking of ‘I cannot tell’:
Go, pack you hence, and meet the Turkish Kings
Which are now drawing to my Temple-ward:
Tell them from me, God Mahomet is disposed
To prophesy no more to Amurack,
Since that his tongue is waxen now so free,
As that it needs must chat and rail at me. [Kneel down both.]

1 PRIEST: Oh Mahomet, if all the solemn prayers
Which from our childhood we have offered thee,
Can make thee call this sentence back again, … [IV.1.30]
Bring not thy Priest[s] into this dangerous state;
For when the Turk doth hear of this repulse,
We shall be sure to die the death therefore.

MAHOMET: [speaking out of the Brazen Head.]sayest truth, go call the Princes in:
I’ll prophesy unto them for this once,
But in such wise as they shall neither boast
Nor you be hurt in any kind of wise.

[Enter Belinus, Claramount, Arcastus,both the Priests to meet them; the first say.]

1 PRIEST: You Kings of Turks, Mahomet our God,
By sacred science having notice that
You were sent Legates from high Amurack … [IV.1.40]
Unto this place, commanded us, his Priests,
That we should cause you make as mickle speed
As well you might, to hear for certainty
Of that shall happen to your King and ye.

BELINUS: For that intent we came into this place;
And sithens that the mighty Mahomet
Is now at leisure for to tell the same,
Let us make haste and take time while we may,
For mickle danger hapneth through delay.

2 PRIEST: Truth, worthy King, and therefore you yourself, … [IV.1.50]
With your companions, kneel before this place
And listen well what Mahomet doth say.

[Kneel all down before the brazen head.]

BELINUS: As you do will, we jointly will obey.

MAHOMET: [speaking out of the Brazen Head.]of Turkey and Ambassadors
Of Amurack to mighty Mahomet,
I needs must muse that you, which erst have been
The readiest soldiers of the triple world,
Are now become so slack in your affairs
As, when you should with bloody blade in hand
Be hacking helms in thickest of your foes, … [IV.1.60]
You stand still loitering in the Turkish soil.
What, know you not, how that it is decreed
By all the gods, and chiefly by myself,
That you with triumph should all Crowned be?
Make hast [then] Kings, least when the fates do see
How carelessly you do neglect their words,
They call a Counsel and force Mahomet
Against his will some other things to set.
Send Fabius back to Amurack again
To haste him forwards in his enterprise, … [IV.1.70]
And march you on, with all the troops you have,
To Naples-ward, to conquer Aragon.
For if you stay, both you and all your men
Must needs be sent down straight to Limbo den.

2 PRIEST: Muse not, brave Kings, at Mahomet’s discourse,
For mark what he forth of that mouth doth say:
Assure yourselves it needs must happen so.
Therefore make haste, go mount you on your steeds,
And set upon Alphonsus presently:
So shall you reap great honor for your pain, … [IV.1.80]
And ‘scape the scourge which else the Fates obtain. [Rise all up.]

BELINUS: Then, proud Alphonsus, look thou to thy Crown:
Belinus comes, in glitt’ring armor clad,
All ready pressed for to revenge the wrong
Which not long since you offered unto him;
And since we have God Mahound on our side,
The victory must needs to us betide.

CLARAMOUNT: Worthy Belinus, set such threats away,
And let us haste as fast as horse can trot
To set upon presumptuous Aragon. … [IV.1.90]
You, Fabius, haste, as Mahound did command,
To Amurack with all the speed you may.

FABIUS: With willing mind, I hasten on my way. [Exit Fabius.]

BELINUS: And thinking long till that we be in fight,
Belinus hastes to quail Alphonsus’ might. [Exeunt omnes.]

Scene IV.2

[Strike up alarum a while. Enter Carinus.]

CARINUS: No sooner had God Phoebus’ brightsome beams
Begun to dive within the Western seas,
And darksome Nox had spread about the earth
Her blackish mantle, but a drowsy sleep
Did take possession of Carinus’ sense,
And Morpheus showed me strange disguised shapes.
Methought I saw Alphonsus, my dear son,
Placed in a throne all glittering clear with gold,
Bedecked with diamonds, pearls and precious stones,
Which shined so clear, and glittered all so bright, … [IV.2.10]
Hyperion’s coach that well be termed it might.
Above his head a canopy was set,
Not decked with plumes, as other Princes use,
But all beset with heads of conquered kings,
Installed with Crowns, which made a gallant show
And struck a terror to the viewers’ hearts.
Under his feet lay groveling on the ground
Thousand of Princes, which he in his wars
By martial might did conquer and bring low:
Some lay as dead as either stock or stone, … [IV.2.20]
Some other tumbled, wounded as to the death;
But most of them, as to their sovereign king,
Did offer duly homage unto him.
As thus I stood beholding of this pomp,
Methought Alphonsus did espy me out;
And at a trice, he leaving throne alone,
Came to embrace me in his blessed arms.
Then noise of drums and sound of trumpets shrill
Did wake Carinus from this pleasant dream.
Something, I know, is now foreshown by this: … [IV.2.30]
The Gods forfend that ought should hap amiss.

[Carinus walk up and down.
Enter the Duke of Milan in Pilgrim’s apparel, and say.

DUKE: This is the chance of fickle Fortune’s wheel:
A Prince at morn, a Pilgrim ere it be night.
I, which erewhile did disdain for to possess
The proudest palace of the western world,
Would now be glad a cottage for to find
To hide my head: so Fortune hath assigned.
Thrice Hesperus with pomp and peerless pride
Hath heaved his head forth of the Eastern Seas:
Thrice Cynthia, with Phoebus’ borrowed beams, … [IV.2.40]
Hath shown her beauty through the darkish clouds,
Since that I, wretched Duke, have tasted ought,
Or drunk a drop of any kind of drink.
Instead of beds set forth with ebony,
The greenish grass hath been my resting-place;
And for my pillow stuffed/[soft?] with down,
The hardish hillocks have sufficed my turn.
Thus I, which erst had all things at my will,
A life more hard than death do follow still.

CARINUS: [Aside.] Methinks I hear, not very far from hence, … [IV.2.50]
Some woeful wight lamenting his mischance:
I’ll go and see if that I can espy
Him where he sits, or overhear his talk.

DUKE: Oh Milan, Milan, little dost thou think
How that thy Duke is now in such distress;
For if thou didst, I soon should be released
Forth of this greedy gulf of misery.

CARINUS: [Aside.] The Milan Duke: I thought as much before,
When first I glanced mine eyes upon his face:
This is the man which was the only cause … [IV.2.60]
That I was forced to fly from Aragon.
High Jove be praised, which hath allotted me
So fit a time to quite that injury. —
Pilgrim, God speed.

DUKE: Welcome, grave sir, to me.

CARINUS: Methought as now I heard you for to speak
Of Milan land: pray, do you know the same?

[DUKE]: Aye, aged father, I have cause to know
Both Milan land and all the parts thereof.

CARINUS: Why then, I doubt not but you can resolve … [IV.2.70]
Me of a question that I shall demand.

DUKE: Aye, that I can, whatever that it be.

CARINUS: Then, to be brief: not twenty winters past,
When these my limbs, which withered are with age,
Were in the prime and spring of all their youth,
I still desirous, as young gallants be,
To see the fashions of Arabia,
My native soil, and in this pilgrim’s weed,
Began to travel through unkenned lands.
Much ground I passed, and many soils I saw; … [IV.2.80]
But when my feet in Milan land I set,
Such sumptuous triumphs daily there I saw
As never in my life I found the like.
I pray, good sir: What might the occasion be
That made the Milans make such mirth and glee?

DUKE: This solemn joy whereof you now do speak
Was not solemnized, my friend, in vain;
For at that time there came into the land
The happiest tidings that they ere did hear;
For news was brought upon that solemn day … [IV.2.90]
Unto our Court that Ferdinandus proud
Was slain himself; Carinus and his son
Were banished both forever from Aragon;
And for these happy news that joy was made.

CARINUS: But what, I pray, did afterward become
Of old Carinus with his banished son?
What, hear you nothing of them all this while?

DUKE: Yes, too too much, the Milan Duke may say.
Alphonsus first by secret means did get
To be a soldier in Belinus’ wars, … [IV.2.100]
Wherein he did behave himself so well
As that he got the Crown of Aragon,
Which being got, he dispossessed also
The King Belinus which had fostered him.
As for Carinus, he is dead and gone:
I would his son were his companion.

CARINUS: A blister build upon that traitor’s tongue!
But, for thy friendship which thou showedst me,
Take that of me: I frankly give it thee. [Stab him.]
Now will I haste to Naples with all speed, … [IV.2.10]
To see if Fortune will so favor me
To view Alphonsus in his happy state. [Exit Carinus.]

Scene IV.3

[Enter Amurack, Crocon King of Arabia, Faustus
King of Babylon, Fabius, with the Turk’s Janessaries

AMURACK: Fabius, come hither: what is that thou sayest?
What did god Mahound prophesy to us?
Why do our Viceroys wend unto the wars
Before their Kind had notice of the same?
What, do they think to play bob-fool with me?
Or are they waxed so frolic now of late,
Since that they had the leading of our bands,
As that they think that mighty Amurack
Dares do no other than to soothe them up?
Why speakest thou not? What fond or frantic fit … [IV.3.10]
Did make those careless Kings to venture it?

FAUSTUS: Pardon, dear Lord; no frantic fit at all,
No frolic vain, nor no presumptuous mind,
Did make your Viceroys take these wars in hand;
But forced they were by Mahound’s prophesy
To do the same, or else resolve to die.

AMURACK: So, sir, I hear you, but can scarce believe
That Mahomet would charge them go before,
Against Alphonsus with so small a troop,
Whose number far exceeds King Xerxes’ troop. … [IV.3.20]

FAUSTUS: Yes, Noble Lord, and more than that, he said
That, ere that you, with these your warlike men,
Should come to bring your succor to the field,
Belinus, Claramount, and Arcastus too
Should all be crowned with crowns of beaten gold
And borne with triumphs round about their tents.

AMURACK: With triumph, man? Did Mahound tell them so?
Provost, go carry Fabius presently
Unto the Marshalsea; there let him rest,
Clapped sure and safe in fetters all of steel … [IV.3.30]
Till Amurack discharge him from the same.
For be he sure, unless it happen so
As he did say Mahound did prophesy,
By this my hand forthwith the slave shall die.

[Lay hold of Fabius, and make as thou you carry him out;a (messenger) soldier and say.]

MESSENGER: Stay, Provost, stay, let Fabius alone:
More fitteth now that every lusty lad
Be buckling on his helmet, than to stand
In carrying soldiers to the Marshalsea.

AMURACK: Why, what art thou that darest once presume
For to gainsay that Amurack did bid? … [IV.3.40]

MESSENGER: I am, my Lord, the wretchedst man alive,
Born underneath the Planet of mishap;
Erewhile a soldier of Belinus’ band,
But now —

AMURACK: ~~~ What now?

MESSENGER: ~~~~~~ The mirror of mishap,
Whose Captain is slain, and all his army dead,
Only excepted me, unhappy wretch.

AMURACK: What news is this? And is Belinus slain?
Is this the Crown which Mahomet did say … [IV.3.50]
He should with triumph wear upon his head?
Is this the honor which that cursed god
Did prophesy should happen to them all?
Oh Daedalus, and wert thou now alive
To fasten wings upon high Amurack,
Mahound should know, and that for certainty,
That Turkish Kings can brook no injury.

FABIUS: Tush, tush, my Lord, I wonder what you mean,
Thus to exclaim against high Mahomet:
I’ll lay my life that, ere this day be past, … [IV.3.60]
You shall perceive these tidings all be waste.

AMURACK: We shall perceive, accursed Fabius?
Suffice it not that thou hast been the man
That first didst beat those babbles in my brain,
But that, to help me forward in my grief,
Thou seekest to confirm so foul a lie. [Stab him.]
Go, get thee hence, and tell thy traitorous King
What gift you had, which did such tidings bring. —
And now, my Lords, since nothing else will serve,
Buckle your helms, clap on your steeled coats, … [IV.3.70]
Mount on your Steeds, take Lances in your hands;
For Amurack doth mean this very day
Proud Mahomet with weapons to assay.

MESSENGER: Mercy, high Monarch: it is no time now
To spend the day in such vain threatenings
Against our god, the mighty Mahomet:
More fitteth thee to place thy men-at-arms
In battle ‘ray for to withstand your foes,
Which now are drawing towards you with speed.
[Sound drums within.]
Hark how their drums with dub a dub do come! … [IV.3.80]
To arms, high Lord, and set these trifles by,
That you may set upon them valiantly.

AMURACK: And do they come? You Kings of Turkey [land],
Now is the time in which your warlike arms
Must raise your names above the starry skies:
Call to your mind your predecessors’ acts,
Whose martial might this many a hundred year
Did keep those fearful dogs in dread and awe,
And let your weapons show Alphonsus plain,
That though that they be clapped up in clay, … [IV.3.90]
Yet there be branches sprung up from those trees
In Turkish land, which brook no injuries.
Besides the same, remember with yourselves
What foes we have: not mighty Tamberlaine,
Nor soldiers trained up amongst the wars,
But fearful boors [boars?], picked from their rural flock,
Which till this time were wholly ignorant
What weapons meant, or bloody Mars doth crave.
More would I say, but horses that be free
Do need no spurs, and soldiers which themselves … [IV.3.100]
Long and desire to buckle with the foe
Do need no words to egg them to the same.

[Enter Alphonsus, with a Canopy carried over him by three Lords,over each corner a King’s head, crowned; with him, Albinius,, Miles, with Crowns on their heads, and their Soldiers.]
Besides the same, behold whereas our foes
Are marching towards us most speedily.
Courage, my Lords, ours is the victory.

ALPHONSUS: Thou Pagan dog, how darst thou be so bold
To set thy foot within Alphonsus’ land?
What, art thou come to view thy wretched Kings,
Whose traitorous heads bedecked my tent so well?
Or else, thou hearing that on top thereof … [IV.3.110]
There is a place left vacant, art thou come
To have thy head possess the highest seat?
If it be so, lie down, and this my sword
Shall presently that honor thee afford.
If not, pack hence; or by the heavens I vow,
Both thou and thine shall very soon perceive
That he that seeks to move my patience
Must yield his life to me for recompense.

AMURACK: Why, proud Alphonsus, thinkst thou Amurack,
Whose mighty force doth terrify the Gods, … [IV.3.120]
Can ere be found to turn his heels and fly
Away for fear from such a boy as thou?
No, no, although that Mars this mickle while
Hath fortified thy weak and feeble arm,
And Fortune oft hath viewed with friendly face
Thy armies marching victors from the field,
Yet at the presence of high Amurack
Fortune shall change, and Mars, that God of might,
Shall succor me and leave Alphonsus quite.

ALPHONSUS: Pagan, I say thou greatly art deceived: … [IV.3.130]
I clap up Fortune in a cage of gold,
To make her turn her wheel as I think best;
And as for Mars whom you do say will change,
He moping sits behind the kitchen door,
Pressed at command of every scullion’s mouth,
Who dares not stir nor once to move a whit,
For fear Alphonsus then should stomach it.

AMURACK: Blasphemous dog, I wonder that the earth
Doth cease from renting underneath thy feet,
To swallow up that cankered corpse of thine. … [IV.3.140]
I must that Jove can bridle so his ire
As, when he hears his brother so misused,
He can refrain from sending thunderbolts
By thick and threefold, to revenge his wrong.
Mars fights for me, and Fortune be my guide;
And I’ll be victor, whatsomere betide.

ALBINIUS: Pray loud enough, lest that you pray in vain:
Perhaps God Mars and Fortune is asleep.

[AMURACK]: And Mars lies slumb’ring on his downy bed,
Yes do not think but that the power we have, … [IV.3.150]
Without the help of those celestial Gods,
Will be sufficient, yea, with small ado,
Alphonsus’ straggling army to subdue.

LAELIUS: You had need as then to call for Mahomet,
With hellish hags [for] to perform the same.

FAUSTUS: High Amurack, I wonder what you mean,
That when you may, with little toil or none,
Compel these dogs to keep their tongues in peace,
You let them stand still barking in this sort:
Believe me, sovereign, I do blush to see … [IV.3.160]
These beggars’ brats to chat so frolicly.

ALPHONSUS: How now, sir boy? Let Amurack himself,
Or any he, the proudest of you all,
But offer once for to unsheath his sword,
If that he dares, for all the power you have.

AMURACK: What, dar’st thou us? Myself will venture it.
To arms, my mates.

[Amurack draw thy sword: Alphonsus and all the other Kingstheirs: strike up alarum: fly Amurack and his company. Alphonsus and his company.]



[Strike up Alarum. Enter Venus.]

VENUS: Fierce is the fight, and bloody is the broil.
No sooner had the roaring cannon-shot
Spit forth the venom of their fired paunch,
And with their pellets sent such troops of souls
Down to the bottom of the dark Averne,
As that it covered all the Stygian fields;
But on a sudden, all the men-at-arms,
Which mounted were on lusty courser’s backs,
Did rush together with so great a noise
As that I thought the giants one time more … [V.Pro.10]
Did scale the heavens, as erst they did before.
Long time dame Fortune tempered so her wheel
As that there was no vantage to be seen
On any side, but equal was the gain.
But at the length, so God and Fates decreed,
Alphonsus was the victor of the field,
And Amurack became his prisoner,
Who so remained until his daughter came,
And by her marrying did his pardon frame. [Exit Venus.]

Scene V.1: A Battlefield

[Strike up alarum: fly Amurack, follow Alphonsus, and take him
prisoner: Carry him in. Strike up alarum: fly Crocon and Faustus.
Enter Fausta and Iphigina, with their army, and meet them, and say

FAUSTA: You Turkish Kings, what sudden flight is this?
What means the men, which for their valiant prowess
Were dreaded erst clean through the triple world,
Thus cowardly to turn their backs and fly?
What froward fortune happened on your side?
I hope your King in safety doth abide?

CROCON: Aye, noble madam, Amurack doth live,
And long I hope he shall enjoy his life;
But yet I fear, unless more succor come,
We shall both lose our King and sovereign. … [V.1.10]

FAUSTUS: How so, King Crocon? Dost thou speak in jest,
To prove if Fausta would lament his death?
Or else hath anything hapt him amiss?
Speak quickly, Crocon, what the cause might be,
That thou dost utter forth these words to me.

CROCON: Then, worthy Fausta, know that Amurack,
Our mighty King, and your approved spouse,
Pricked with desire of everlasting fame,
As he was pressing in the thickest ranks
Of Aragonians, was, with much ado … [V.1.20]
At length took prisoner by Alphonsus’ hands.
So that, unless you succor soon do bring,
You lose your spouse, and we shall want our King.

IPHIGINA: Oh hapless hap, oh dire and cruel fate!
What injury hath Amurack, my sire,
Done to the Gods, which now I know are wrath,
Although unjustly and without a cause?
For well I wot, not any other King
Which now doth live, or since the world begun
Did sway a scepter, had a greater care … [V.1.30]
To please the Gods than mighty Amurack.
And for to quite our father’s great good will,
Seek they thus basely all his fame to spill?

FAUSTA: Iphigina, leave off these woeful tunes:
It is not words can cure and ease this wound,
But warlike swords: not tears but sturdy spears.
High Amurack is prisoner to our foes.
What then? Think you that our Amazons,
Joined with the forces of the Turkish troop,
Are not sufficient for to set him free? … [V.1.40]
Yes, daughter, yes: I mean not for to sleep
Until he is free, or we him company keep.
March on, my mates. [Exeunt omnes.]

Scene V.2: Another part of the Field.

[Strike up alarum: fly Alphonsus, follow Iphigina, and say.]

IPHIGINA: How now, Alphonsus! You which never yet
Could meet your equal in the feats of arms,
How haps it now that in such sudden sort
You fly the presence of a silly maid?
What, have you found mine arm of such a force
As that you think your body over-weak
For to withstand the fury of my blows?
Or do you else disdain to fight with me,
For staining of your high nobility?

ALPHONSUS: No, dainty dame, I would not have thee think … [V.2.10]
That ever thou or any other wight
Shall live to see Alphonsus fly the field
From any King or Kaiser who some ere:
First will I die in thickest of my foe
Before I will disbase mine honor so.
Nor do I scorn, thou goddess, for to stain
My prowess with thee, although it be a shame
For knights to combat with the female sect.
But love, sweet mouse, hath so benumbed my wit
That thou I would, I must refrain from it. … [V.2.20]

IPHIGINA: I thought as much when first I came to wars:
Your noble acts were fitter to be writ
Within the Tables of dame Venus’ son
Than in god Mars his warlike registers.
Whenas your Lords are hacking helms abroad
And make their spears to shiver in the air,
Your mind is busied in fond Cupid’s toys:
Come on, i’ faith, I’ll teach you for to know
We came to fight, and not to love, I trow.

ALPHONSUS: Nay, virgin, stay. and if thou wilt vouchsafe … [V.2.30]
To entertain Alphonsus’ simple suit,
Thou shalt erelong be Monarch of the world:
All christened Kings, with all your Pagan dogs,
Shall bend their knees unto Iphigina:
The Indian soil shall be thine at command,
Where every step thou settest on the ground
Shall be received on the golden mines:
Rich Pactolus, that river of account,
Which doth descend from top of Tmolus Mount,
Shall be thine own, and all the world beside, … [V.2.40]
If you will grant to be Alphonsus’ bride.

IPHIGINA: Alphonsus bride? Nay, villain, do not think
That fame or riches can so rule my thoughts
As for to make me love and fancy him
Whom I do hate, and in such sort despise,
As if my death could bring to pass his bane,
I would not long from Pluto’s port remain.

ALPHONSUS: Nay, then, proud peacock: since thou art so stout
As that entreaty will not move thy mind
For to consent to be my wedded spouse, … [V.2.50]
Thou shalt, in spite of Gods and Fortune too,
Serve high Alphonsus as a concubine.

IPHIGINA: I’ll rather die than ever that shall hap.

ALPHONSUS: And thou shalt die unless it come to pass.
[Alphonsus and Iphigina fight. Iphigina fly; follow Alphonsus.]

Scene V.3

[Strike up alarum. Enter Alphonsus with his rapier, Albinius, Laelius, Miles, with their soldiers. Amurack, Fausta, Iphigina, Crocon and Fausta, all bound with their hands behind them. Amurack look angerly on Fausta. Enter Medea and say.]

MEDEA: Nay, Amurack, this is no time to jar,
Although thy wife did, in her frantic mood,
Use speeches which might better have been spared,
Yet do thou not judge this same time to be
A season to require that injury:
More fitteth thee, with all the wit thou hast,
To call to mind which way thou mayst release
Thyself, thy wife, and fair Iphigina,
Forth of the power of stout Alphonsus’ hands.
For well I wot, since first you breathed breath, … [V.3.10]
You never were to nigh the snares of death.
Now, Amurack, your high and Kingly seat,
Your royal scepter and your stately Crown,
Your mighty Country and your men-at-arms,
Be conquered all, and can no succor bring.
Put then no trust in these same paltry toys,
But call to mind that thou a prisoner art,
Clapped up in chains, whose life and death depends
Upon the hands of thy most mortal foe.
Then take thou heed, that whatsomere he say, … [V.3.20]
Thou dost not once presume for to gainsay.

AMURACK: Away, you fool! Think you your cursed charms
Can bridle so the mind of Amurack
As that he will stand crouching to his foe?
No, no, be sure that, if that beggar’s brat
Do dare but once to contrary my will,
I’ll make him soon in heart for to repent
That ere such words gainst Amurack he spent.

MEDEA: Then, since thou dost disdain my good advice,
Look to thyself; and if you fare amiss, … [V.3.30]
Remember that Medea counsel gave
Which might you safe from all those perils save.
But, Fausta, you, as well you have begun:
Beware you follow still your friend’s advice.
If that Alphonsus do desire of thee
To have your daughter for his wedded spouse,
Beware you do not once the same gainsay,
Unless with death he do your rashness pay.

FAUSTA: No, worthy wight: first Fausta means to die
Before Alphonsus she will contrary. … [V.3.40]

MEDEA: Why then, farewell. — But you, Iphigina,
Beware you do not over-squeamish wax,
Whenas your mother giveth her consent.

IPHIGINA: The Gods forbid that ere I should gainsay
That which Medea bids me obey. [Exit Medea.]

[Rise up Alphonsus out of his chair, who all this while hath beento Albinius, and say.]

ALPHONSUS: Now, Amurack, the proud blasphemous dogs
(For so you termed us) which did brawl and rail
Against God Mars and fickle Fortune’s wheel,
Have got the goal for all your solemn prayers:
Yourself are prisoner, which as then did think … [V.3.50]
That all the forces of the triple world
Were insufficient to fulfill the same.
How like you this? Is Fortune of such might,
Or hath God Mars such force or power divine,
As that he can, with all the power he hath,
Set thee and thine forth of Alphonsus’ hands?
I do not think but that your hope’s so small
As that you would with very willing mind
Yield for my spouse the fair Iphigina,
On that condition that without delay, … [V.3.60]
Fausta and you may scot-free ‘scape away.

AMURACK: What, thinkst thou, villain, that high Amurack
Bears such a mind as, for the fear of death,
He’ll yield his daughter, yea, his only joy,
Into the hands of such a dunghill Knight?
No, traitor, no; for [though] as now I lie
Clapped up in Irons and with bolts of steel,
Yet do there lurk within the Turkish soil
Such troops of soldiers, that with small ado,
They’ll set me scot-free from your men and you. … [V.3.70]

ALPHONSUS: ‘Villain,’ sayest thou? ‘Traitor’ and ‘dunghill Knight?’
Now by the heavens, since that thou dost deny
For to fulfill that which in gentle-wise
Alphonsus’ craves, both thou and all thy train
Shall with your lives requite that injury.
Albinius, lay hold of Amurack
And carry him to prison presently,
There to remain until I do return
Into my tent; for by high Jove I vow,
Unless he wax more calmer out of hand, … [V.3.80]
His head amongst his fellow Kings shall stand.

[Albinius carry Amurack forth, who as he is going must say.]

AMURACK: No, villain, think not that the fear of death
Shall make me calmer while I draw my breath.

ALPHONSUS: Now, Laelius, take you Iphigina,
Her mother Fausta, with these other Kings,
And put them into prisons severally;
For Amurack’s stout stomach shall undo
Both he himself and all his other crew.

[Fausta kneel down.]

FAUSTA: Oh sacred Prince, if that the salt-brine tears,
Distilling down poor Fausta’s withered cheeks, … [V.3.90]
Can mollify the hardness of your heart,
Lessen this judgment, which you in thy rage
Hast given on thy luckless prisoners.

ALPHONSUS: Woman, away! My word is gone and past;
Now, if I would, I cannot call it back;
You might have yielded at my first demand,
And then you need[ed] not to fear this hap.
Laelius, make haste; and go thou presently
For to fulfill that I commanded thee.

[Rise up Fausta, kneel down Iphigina and say.]

IPHIGINA: Mighty Alphonsus, since my mother’s suit … [V.3.100]
Is so rejected, that in any case
You will not grant us pardon for her sake,
I now will try if that my woeful prayers
May plead for pity at your grace’s feet.
When first you did, amongst the thickest ranks,
All clad in glittering arms encounter me,
You know yourself what love you did protest
You then did bear unto Iphigina:
Then for that love, if any love you had,
Revoke this sentence, which is too too bad. … [V.3.110]

ALPHONSUS: No, damsel; he that will not when he may,
When he desires; shall surely purchase nay:
If that you had, when first I proffer made,
Yielded to me, mark, what I promised you,
I would have done; but since you did deny,
Look for denial at Alphonsus’ hands.

[Rise up Iphigina, and stand aside. Alphonsus talk with Albinius.Carinus in his Pilgrim’s clothes, and say.]

[CARINUS]: Oh friendly Fortune, now thou showest thy power
In raising up my son from banished state
Unto the top of thy most mighty wheel.
But what be these, which at his sacred feet … [V.3.120]
Do seem to plead for mercy at his hands?
I’ll go and sift this matter to the full.
[Go toward Alphonsus and speak to one of his soldiers.]

Sir Knight, and may a Pilgrim be so bold
To put your person to such a mickle pain
For to inform me what great king is this,
And what these be, which in such woeful sort,
Do seem to seek for mercy at his hands?

SOLDIER: Pilgrim, the King that sits on stately throne
Is called Alphonsus; and this matron hight
Fausta, the wife to Amurack the Turk: … [V.3.130]
That is their daughter, fair Iphigina:
Both which, together with the Turk himself,
He did take prisoners in a battle fought.

[Alphonsus spy out Carinus and say:]

ALPHONSUS: And can the gods be found so kind to me
As that Carinus now I do espy?
Tis he indeed. — Come on, Albinius:
The mighty conquest which I have achieved,
And victories the which I oft have won,
Bring not such pleasure to Alphonsus’ heart
As now my father’s presence doth impart. … [V.3.140]

[Alphonsus and Albinius go toward Carinus:stand looking on Carinus, Carinus say:]

CARINUS: What, here a word, Alphonsus? Art thou dumb?
Or doth my presence so perturb thy mind
That, for because I come in Pilgrim’s weed,
You think each word which you do spend to me
A great disgrace unto your name to be?
Why speakest thou not? If that my place you crave,
I will be gone, and you my place shall have.

ALPHONSUS: Nay rather, stay: the Gods of heaven forbid
That ere Alphonsus should desire or wish
To have his absence whom he doth account … [V.3.150]
To be the [very] Lodestone of his life,
What, though the fates and fortune, both in one,
Have been content to call your loving son
From beggar’s state unto this princely seat,
Should I, therefore, disdain my aged sire?
No, first both Crown and life I will detest,
Before such venom breed within my breast.
What erst I did, the sudden joy I took
To see Carinus in such happy state
Did make me do, and nothing else at all, … [V.3.160]
High Jove himself do I to witness call.

CARINUS: These words are vain: I knew as much before;
But yet, Alphonsus, I must wonder needs,
That you whose years are prone to Cupid’s snares,
Can suffer such a Goddess as this dame
Thus for to shed such store of Crystal tears.
Believe me, son, although my years be spent,
Her sighs and sobs in twain my heart do rent.

ALPHONSUS: Like power, dear father, had she over me,
Until for love I looking to receive … [V.3.170]
Love back again, not only was denied,
But also taunted in most spiteful sort;
Which made me loathe that which I erst did love,
As she herself with all her friends shall prove.

CARINUS: How now, Alphonsus? You which have so long
Been trained up in bloody broils of Mars,
What know you not, that Castles are not won
At first assault, and women are not wooed
When first their suitors proffer love to them?
As for my part, I should account that maid … [V.3.180]
A wanton wench, unconstant, lewd and light,
That yields the field before she venture fight,
Especially unto her mortal foe,
As you were then unto Iphigina.
But, for because I see you fitter are
To enter Lists and combat with your foes
Than court fair Ladies in God Cupid’s tents,
Carinus means your spokesman for to be,
And if that she consent, you shall agree.

ALPHONSUS: What you command, Alphonsus must not fly: … [V.3.190]
Though otherwise perhaps he would deny.

CARINUS: Then, dainty damsel, stint these trickling tears;
Cease sighs and sobs, yea make a merry cheer:
Your pardon is already purchased,
So that you be not over-curious
In granting to Alphonsus’ just demand.

IPHIGINA: Thanks, mighty Prince, no curioser I’ll be
Than doth become a maid of my degree.

CARINUS: The gods forbid that ere Carinus’ tongue
Should go about to make a maid consent [V.3.200]
Unto the thing which modesty denies:
That which I ask is neither hurt to thee,
Danger to parents, nor disgrace to friends,
But good and honest, and will profit bring
To thee and those which lean unto that thing.
And that is this: — since first Alphonsus’ eyes
Did hap to glance upon your heavenly hue,
And saw the rare perfection of the same,
He hath desired to become your spouse:
Now if you will unto the same agree, … [V.3.210]
I dare assure you that you shall be free.

IPHIGINA: Pardon, dear Lord: the world goes very hard
When womenkind are forced for to woo.
If that your son had loved me so well,
Why did he not inform me of the same?

CARINUS: Why did he not? What, have you clean forgot
What ample proffers he did make to you,
When hand-to-hand he did encounter you?

IPHIGINA: No, worthy sir, I have not it forgot;
But Cupid cannot enter in the breast … [V.3.220]
Where Mars before had took possession:
That was no time to talk of Venus’ games
When all our fellows were pressed in the wars.

CARINUS: Well, let that pass: now canst thou be content
To love Alphonsus and become his spouse?

IPHIGINA: Aye, if the high Alphonsus could vouchsafe
To entertain me as his wedded spouse.

ALPHONSUS: If that he could? What, dost thou doubt of that?
Jason did jet whenas he had obtained
The golden fleece by wise Medea’s art: … [V.3.230]
The Greeks rejoiced when they had subdued
The famous bulwarks of most stately Troy;
But all their mirth was nothing in respect
Of this, my joy, since that I now have got
That which I long desired in my heart.

CARINUS: But what says Fausta to her daughter’s choice?

FAUSTA: Fausta doth say, the Gods have been her friends,
To let her live to see Iphigina
Bestowed so unto her heart’s consent.

ALPHONSUS: Thanks, mighty Empress, for your gentleness; … [V.3.240]
And if Alphonsus can at any time
With all his power requite this courtesy,
You shall perceive how kindly he doth take
Your forwardness in this his happy chance.

CARINUS: Albinius, go call forth Amurack:
We’ll see what he doth say unto this match.
[Exit Albinius; bring forth Amurack.]
Most mighty Turk, I, with my warlike son
Alphonsus, loathing that so great a Prince
As you should live in such unseemly sort,
Have sent for you to proffer life or death: … [V.3.250]
Life, if you do consent to our demand,
And death, if that you dare gainsay the same.
Your wife, high Fausta, with Iphigina,
Have given consent that this my warlike son
Should have your daughter for his bedfellow:
Now resteth nought but that you do agree,
And so to purchase sure tranquility.

AMURACK: [Aside.] Now, Amurack, advise thee what thou sayest:
Bethink thee well what answer thou wilt make:
Thy life and death dependeth on thy words. … [V.3.260]
If thou deny to be Alphonsus’ sire,
Death is thy share; but if that thou consent,
Thy live is saved. Consent? Nay, rather die:
Should I consent to give Iphigina
Into the hands of such a beggar’s brat?
What, Amurack, thou dost deceive thyself;
Alphonsus is the son unto a King:
What then? Then worthy of thy daughter’s love.
She is agreed, and Fausta is content:
Then Amurack will not be discontent. [V.3.270]
[Take Iphigina by the hand, and give her to Alphonsus.]
Here, brave Alphonsus, take thou at my hand
Iphigina: I give her unto thee;
And for her dowry, when her father dies,
Thou shalt possess the Turkish Emperie.
Take her, I say; and live King Nestor’s years:
So would the Turk and all his Noble Peers.

ALPHONSUS: Immortal thanks I give unto your grace.

CARINUS: Now, worthy Princes, since by help of Jove,
On either side the wedding is decreed:
Come, let us wend to Naples speedily, … [V.3.280]
For to solemnize it with mirth and glee.

AMURACK: As you do will, we jointly do agree. [Exit omnes.]
[Enter Venus with the Muses and Say:]

VENUS: Now worthy Muses, with unwilling mind
Venus is forced to trudge to heaven again;
For Jupiter, that God of peerless power,
Proclaimed hath a solemn festival
In honor of dame Danae’s luckless death,
Unto the which, in pain of his displeasure,
He hath intuited all the immortal Gods
And Goddesses, so that I must be there,
Unless I will his high displeasure bear.
You see Alphonsus hath, with much ado, … [V.Epi.10]
At length obtained fair Iphigina
Of Amurack her father, for his wife,
Who now are going to the Temple wards,
For to perform dame Juno’s sacred rites,
Where we will leave them till the feast be done,
Which in the heavens, by this time is begun.
Meantime, dear Muses, wander you not far
Forth of the path of high Parnassus hill,
That when I come to finish up his life,
You may be ready for to succor me. … [V.Epi.20]
Adieu, dear dames; farewell Calliope.

CALLIOPE: Adieu, you sacred Gods of the sky.
[Exit Venus; Or if you can conveniently, let a chair comefrom the top of the Stage and draw her up.]
Well, loving Sisters, since that she is gone,
Come, let us haste unto Parnassus hill,
As Citherea did [us] lately will.

MELPOMENE: Then make you haste her mind for to fulfill.
[Exeunt omnes, playing on their Instruments.]


Appendix I – Glossary

[FS means: found in Shakespeare – NFS means: not found in Shakespeare]

asbeston (n): the qualities of asbestos were discussed similarly in Lyly Euphues, and Sapho; and Greene Alphonsus. Collins points out Solinus Polyhistor and Gesner De rerum fossilium … as sources of Euphuistic natural history peculiarities and misconceptions.

Amurath: 16th c. Turkish sultan. FS (2H4); Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Alphonsus.

bane (n): destruction, poison. FS (8-2H6, T&C, MM, Cymb, Titus, Mac, Edw3, V&A); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Sapho; Marlowe/Nashe Dido; Greene Alphonsus, Look Gl; Kyd Sol&Per; Harvey 4 Letters; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Woodstock, Penelope, Blast of Retreat, L Gh; (disp.) Greene’s Groat; Chettle Kind Hart.

bob-fool [play bob-fool] (v): make a fool of. OED cites as first use.

brook (v): put up with, bear with, tolerate. Usually in negative or preclusive constructions. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Lodge Wounds; (anon.) Mucedorus, Woodstock, Ironside, Penelope; Lyly Love’s Met; Greene G a G, Alphonsus, Orl Fur, Fr Bac, James IV; Marlowe Massacre, Edw2; Sidney Astrophel; Nashe Valentines; Harvey Pierce’s Super; Marprelate Prot; Munday Huntington.
buckle (v): engage, grapple. FS (2-1H5); Greene Alphonsus (OED missed citation), Fr Bac; Lyly Pappe.

cheer (n): expression. FS (5-1H6, Shrew, 1H4, Edw3); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Watson Hek; Marlowe/Nashe Dido; Greene Alphonsus, James IV; (anon.) Locrine, Willobie, Penelope; Peele Wives. OED contemp citation: 1559 Mirr. for Mag.
contrary (v): speak against, oppose. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus. Fairly unsuual; OED cites Angel Day among others.

counterfeit (n): portrait, image. FS (3-MV, T&C, Sonnet); Greene Alphonsus, Fr Bac; Marlowe T1; Nashe Penniless, Absurdity; (anon.) Woodstock, Arden.

crake/crack (v): brag. (LLL); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith (n, crackers); Peele Edw I; Greene Alphonsus; (anon.) Ironside, Willobie (n); (disp.) Greene’s Groat (out-cracked); Munday More.

dain (v): disdain.

devoir (devoir, fr) (n): effort, duty. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus; Peele Wives.
echinus (n): sea-urchin, a genus of animals …, inhabiting a spheroidal shell built up from polygonal plates, and covered with rows of sharp spines. (The sense “hedgehog” given in Bailey and some mod. Dicts. seems to be merely Gr. and Lat.) Collins quotes Topsell, History of Four-footed Beasts (1658, p. 218): ‘When the female is to bring forth her young ones and feeleth the natural pain of her delivery she pricketh her own belly and put off her misery, to her further pain, …’ NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus.

ensign (n): body of men serving under one banner; a company, troop. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus.

forfend (n): forbid, prohibit. FS (8), Golding Ovid; Lodge Wounds; Udall Erasmus; Greene Alphonsus; (anon.) Woodstock; Ironside.

frolic (a): (1) OED defines as free, liberal, citing Lodge use as an interjection, equivalent to use in Shrew. This does not seem entirely satisfactory. “Daring” or “rash” might be appropriate. FS (2-Shrew, possibly MND); Lodge Wounds; Greene Alphonsus, Fr Bac, James IV; (anon.) Arden.

froward (a): perverse, forward. FS (13); Golding Ovid; Greene Alphonsus. Common.

glimsing (a): glimpsing, glimmering; shining faintly; appearing by glimpses, affording glimpses. Cf. Watson Hek (3d OED citation); Greene Alphonsus. OED contemp citations: 1551 Recorde Pathw. Knowl; 1577 Stanyhurst Descr. Irel.

hight (v): is/was called/named (v). FS (4-LLL, MND, Pericles); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Gascoigne Jocasta; (anon./Greene) G a G; Greene Alphonsus; Kyd Sp Tr; Peele Wives; (anon.) Leic Gh; Munday Huntington.

incontinent (adv): immediately. FS (4-Rich2, AsYou, Oth, Timon); Golding Ovid; Lyly Woman … Moon; Greene Alphonsus; Marlowe T1; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody, Locrine, Leic Gh; Chapman Iliad.
Marshalsea: court held before the steward and knight-marshal of the royal household; later a prison in Southwark. Connected with religious prisoners and those who committed maritime offenses. FS (1-H8); Cf. Greene Alphonsus (an anachronism); (anon.) Marprelate.

mate (n): lackey, servant. FS (1H6, 2H4); Gascoigne Supposes; (anon./Greene) G a G; Greene Alphonsus, Orl Fur, James IV; (anon.) Ironside; Nashe Almond; Harvey Pierce’s Super; (anon.) Willobie.
maugre/mauger: (fr) in spite of. FS (3-12th, Titus, Lear); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Midas; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Orl Fur, Alphonsus; (anon.) Mucedorus, Locrine, Ironside, Nobody/Somebody, Penelope, Leic Gh; Pasquil Counter; Harvey Sonnet, 3d Letter.

mickle (a): little. FS (6-2H6, 1H6, Errors, R&J, H5, PP); Golding Ovid; Watson Hek; Lodge Wounds; Greene G a G, Alphonsus, James IV; Marlowe/Nashe Dido; (anon.) Woodstock; Munday Huntington.

niece (n): Collins points out that the word “niece” would have been used during the Renaissance to cover more diverse relationships than those implied by its use in modern times.
out of hand: suddenly, immediately. FS (4-1H6, 3H6, Titus, Edw3); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Holinshed; Lodge Wounds; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene Alphonsus, James IV; Sidney Antony; (anon.) Yorkshire Tr.

over-curious (a): over-cautious, modest. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus. In Shakespeare there are uses of “curious” in this sense. OED citest two previous uses. 1561 J. Daus tr. Bullinger on Apoc. (1573); 1579 G. Harvey Letter-bk.

overthwart (v): oppose, obstruct. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus. 1st OED citation 1529 Skelton Ware Hauke, 2d 1611.

pack/be packing (v): (1) begone, depart. FS (5-Shrew, MV, MWW, Timon, PP); Edwards Dam&Pith; Watson Hek; Greene Alphonsus, James IV; (anon.) Willobie. 1st 2 OED citations: 1508 Kennedie Flyting w. Dunbar; 1601 Chester Love’s Mart. (2) return. FS (1-H8); Greene Alphonsus.

pass/past (v): care for, heed. FS (2-2H6, Mac); Golding Ovid; Greene Alphonsus; many others.
pine, pine away: starve, waste away. FS (10+); Golding Ovid; Oxford poems; Greene Alphonsus; (anon./Greene) G a G; many others.

posting (a): speedy, fast-paced. FS (2-AWEW, Cymb); Greene Alphonsus.

rede/reed (v, n): advise, order. FS (Ham, noun); Golding Ovid; Greene Alphonsus. Common.

runagate (n): vagabond, deserter, renegade. FS (4-Rich3, R&J, Cymb); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Gascoigne Supposes; Greene Alphonsus; Nashe Martin Marp, Unfor Travel, Almond; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon). Locrine. OED contemp citations: 1548 Hall Chron.; 1576 Fleming Panopl. Epist.

scot-free (a): free from payment of “scot”, tavern score, fine, etc.; exempt from injury, punishment, etc.; scatheless. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus. OED contemp citations: 1548 Hall Chron., Edw. IV; 1567 J. Maplet Green Forest; 1579-80 North Plutarch, Tiberius & Caius.

silly/seely (a): silly, innocent, vulnerable. FS, Golding Ovid; many others.

sect (n): sex. FS (2H4); Greene Alphonsus.

skipjack (n): pert shallow-brained fellow; whipper-snapper; fop. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus, James IV. OED contemp citation: 1554 T. Martin Marr. Priests Ll ij b, A way was opened to euery skipiack that lusted to make hymselfe a priest.

stomach (v): take offense. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Greene Alphonsus; Marlowe Edw2.
stomach: temper, pride. FS (2-Shrew, H8); Golding Ovid; Lyly Endymion; Greene G a G; Alphonsus; (anon.) Marprelate, Ironside, Weakest; Spenser FQ; Harvey Pierce’s Super; Sidney Antony.

triple world (n): The latin triplex mundus (earth, air, water), used often by Elizabethan dramatists. FS (1-A&C); Golding Ovid; Greene Alphonsus, Orl Fur; Marlowe T1, T2.
A&C (I.1.) The triple pillar of the world transform’d / Into a strumpet’s fool.

trow (v): think, believe confidently. FS (16); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lodge Wounds, Greene G a G, Alphonsus, James IV; Marlowe Jew/Malta, Edw2; (anon.) Woodstock, Marprelate, Ironside, Willobie; (disp.) Oldcastle, Maiden’s; Pasquil Apology.

unkenned (a): unseen. the entry for “ken” FS (4-2H6, T&C, Edw3, TNK); Golding Ovid.

ure (n): use. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Jocasta; Marlowe Jew of Malta; Greene Alphonsus; (anon.) Weakest, Penelope.

wight (n): living being. FS (8-H5, LLL, MWW, Pericles, Oth); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Oxford poem; Greene Alphonsus; many others.

Glossary: Proper Names

Acrisius: to void the prophecy that his grandchild by Danae would kill him, Acrisius had Danae locked in a dungeon, where Zeus came to her in a shower of gold and sired Perseus. Perseus later accidently killed Acrisius.

Alcmena: Zeus appeared to Alcmena in the guise of her husband Amphitryon, begetting Heracles.

Atropos (she who cannot be avoided): cutting the thread of life, Atropos was the most feared of the three fates.

Danae: mother of Perseus. Her death was not notable. Collins guesss that Greene (as was his habit) may have confused Danae and the luckless Semele, mother of Dionysis.

Ixion: son of the Lapith king, who attempted to make love to Hera. He was bound to a fiery wheel which rolled ceaselessly throughout the sky. Ixion was the father of Perithuous and of the Centaurs. Collins notes that Greene apparently confused Ixion and Titius, as did Lyly in Euphues and his England. Kyd and Lyly were allowed mistakes that were snobbishly pilloried when found in lesser degree in the works of the less-educated Thomas Kyd.

Saturn/Troos (III.2.21-23): Collins points out that this story is probably another of Greene’s inventions: it is not found in mythology.

Thetis: sea nymph who bore the child Achilles by Peleus. In uniting Thetis with Phoebus, Greene has once again hopelessly jumbled his mythology. Greene also united Thetis and Phoebus in Orlando Furioso.

Glossary: Place Names

Amazone: Amazonia, land of the Amazons. (Per Collins) described by Bartholomew Glanville, De Proprietatibus Rerum, lib. xv (John Trevisa trans.): ‘Amazonia, Women’s lond, is a countree parte in Asia, parte in Europa, and is nye unto Albania, and hath that name Amazonia of women that were the wives of men that were called Gothos.’

Phlegethon, Styx …: rivers and lakes of Tartarus, often cited also by Kyd.


The title character is apparently meant to suggest Alphonso of Naples and Arragon (1385-54), although Greene may have confused him with Alphonso of Arragon and Navarre (died 1134). As in Greene’s other dramatic works, the model is of little importance: he simply furnishes a name to which the ridiculous nonhistorical plot can be attached.

Two apparent sources are:
Memoirs of Alphonso V by Barthlemy Fazio, (1560, 63); and possibly a work by Albertus Timannus (1573). Greene’s plot bears little resemblance to either work.

Length: 15,020 words

Style and Dating

Churton Collins comments on the rigid metrical system of this early play, lightened in the later works Orlando Furioso, Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay, and James IV by playful and increasingly confident use of light and weak endings, of tribrachs (3-short-syllabic metrical feet), anapaests, and dactyls.
Citing its structural rigidity, Collins suggests that this is the earliest of Greene’s plays, and suggests an approximate date of 1591.

Suggested Reading
Collins, J. Churton, ed. The Plays and Poems of Robert Greene. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1905.

Appendix II: Connections

Connections: Relationship to Other Plays: Plot

Collins dismisses Grosart’s assertion that Greene was the author of Selimus, based on a final speech vowing to continue Alphonsus’ story.

Tamburlaine: the imitation of Tamburlaine is pervasive, in the glorification of conquest, and especially in the capture and wooing of the heroines. Greene’s language, however, is unusually pallid for this talented poet. Contrast lines from Alphonsus (V.2.30-41)

ALPHONSUS: Nay, virgin, stay. and if thou wilt vouchsafe
To entertain Alphonsus’ simple suit,
Thou shalt erelong be Monarch of the world:
All christened Kings, with all your Pagan dogs,
Shall bend their knees unto Iphigina:
The Indian soil shall be thine at command,
Where every step thou settest on the ground
Shall be received on the golden mines:
Rich Pactolus, that river of account,
Which doth descend from top of Tmolus Mount,
shall be thine own, and all the world beside,
If you will grant to be Alphonsus’ bride.

With I Tamburlaine


TAMB: Disdains Zenocrate to live with me?
Or you my Lords to be my followers?
Think you I way this treasure more than you?
Not all the Gold in lndia’s wealthy arms,
Shall buy the meanest soldier in my trains.
Zenocrate, lovelier than the Love of Jove,
Brighter than is the silver Rhodope.
Thy person is more worth to Tamburlaine,
Than the possession of the Persian Crown,
Which gracious stars have promised at my birth.
A hundred Tartars shall attend on thee,
Mounted on Steeds, swifter than Pegasus.
Thy Garments shall be made of Medean silk,
Enchased with precious jewels of mine own:
More rich and valorous than Zenocrates.
With milk-white Harts upon an Ivory sled,
Thou shalt be drawn amidst the frozen Poles,
And scale the icy mountain’s lofty tops:
Which with thy beauty will be soon resolved
My martial prizes with five hundred men,
Won on the fifty headed Volga’s waves,
Shall all we offer to Zenocrate,
And then myself to fair Zenocrate.

Comment: No lady ever had a better offer than that of Zenocrate.

Collins (pp. 72-75) analyzes in detail the relationship and many parallels between Tamburlaine and Alphonsus.
Iphigina herself is portrayed (rather flatly) as a charming, spunky heroine, ready to take up arms to defend her father’s realm. In this respect she is a precursor to Greene’s feminist heroines, Angelica, Margaret, and James IV betrayed but loyal Queen Dorothea. But Greene’s recreation tof he fearsome Tamburlaine is a caricature: cold rather than fierce, a bully rather than passionate would-be lover. There were a number of such attempts to capitalize on the success of Tamburlaine: none could “scale the icy mountain’s lofty tops”. But Greene learned: it was a short step from the dim aspirations of Alphonsus to the art of fanciful romance, attempted with startling results in Orlando Furioso and mastered charmingly in Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay and the swashbuckling James IV.

Connections: Functional

Base and silly fly
Greene Alphonsus (I.1.27): base and silly fly refers to the Culex, a poem attributed to Virgil translated in 1591 by Spenser as Ottava rima.

Thick and three-fold (densely crowded)
Greene Alphonsus (I.Pro.52): By thick and three-fold, …
Nashe Pierce Penniless (McKerrow, 159): it is brought up thick and threefold.
Burton Anatomy (iii.ii): they came in … thick and threefold to see her.

Mock/Scorn … Misery … Flout/Abuse … Suffer/Grief (Thanks to CP for additions)
Greene Alphonsus (I.Pro.63-64) CALLIOPE: Mock on apace: my back is broad enough
To bear your flouts, as many as they be.
Oxford (#56, June 1599 tin mining memorandum, to the Queen):
I dare not say how much Your Majesty is abused, but I find myself much grieved to be set on to compass this money, and having compassed it, to be turned out with such a mockery. I beseech Your Majesty, in whose service I have faithfully employed myself (I will not entreat that you suffer it yourself thus to be abused), but that you will not suffer me thus to be flouted, scorned and mocked.
Shakes MND HELENA: Why will yousuffer her to flout me thus?
HELENA: Wherefore was I to this keen mockery born? …
But you must flouit my insufficiency? / Good troth, you do me wrong, good sooth, you do, …
Should of another therefore be abused!
LLL BIRON: Bruise me with scorn, confound me with a flout;
Ado: BENEDICK: Nay, mock not, mock not. … / you flout old ends any further, …
Titus MESS: And here’s thy hand, in scorn to thee sent back;
Thy griefs their sports, thy resolution mock’d
Anon. Dodypoll (IV.2.49-50) FLORES: Will you, then, in my misery, mock me too?
(CASS): I mock my friend in misery? Heavens scorn such.
Locrine (V.4.41) GWEN: What have I done, that thou shouldst scorn me thus?
What have I said, that thou shouldst me reject? …
Geneva Bible Matt. 27.26-31; Mark 15.20; Luke 23.35-36

Vain … Strive
Golding Ovid Met. (VII.13): In vain, Medea, dost thou strive: some God
whatere he is
(VIII.183): In vain thou striveth, O thou churl, forgetful quite of my
Gascoygne … Jocasta (I.1.71) SERVUS: In vain (too vain) man strives
against the heavens.
Watson Hek (LIX): Which reason strives to vanquish all in vain;
(XII.503): And laboring for to speak his last he did but strive in vain.
Greene Alphonsus (I.1.37) CARINUS: In vain it is to strive against the stream:
(III.3.91) MEDEA: In vain it is to strive against the stream:
Fr Bac (II.2.57) PRINCE: I strive in vain; …
Marlowe Tamb2 (V.3.121) TAMB: In vain I strive and rail against those powers,
Edw2 (V.3.33) MATREVIS:ÊÊWhy strive you thus? Your labor is in vain.
(V.3.35) EDWARD: But all in vain; so vainly do I strive
Shakes Lucrece (238): But, wretched as he is, he strives in vain;
Anon. Willobie (XI.2): You strive in vain, by raging lust,
(XLI.1): I marvel that you strive in vain
(LXIV.3): Then if you strive and stir in vain,
Arden (V.I.262) ALICE: In vain we strive, for here his blood remains.
L Gh (91): My father strived in vain to keep her down,
(287): It is in vain to strive against the stream;
(590): But thus it chanced that he strived in vain

In his/her throat
Gascoygne Supposes (II.5) CLEANDER: Thou liest in thy throat, knave.
Greene Alphonsus (I.1.75) ALPH: ‘Villain’ sayst thou? Nay, ‘villain’ in thy throat:
Orl Fur (III.2.15) ANGELICA: Yet dare I turn the lie into thy throat,
(V.2.47) ORLANDO: I tell thee, sir, thou liest in thy throat, —
Marlowe (T2) GOVERNOR (V.1.54):ÊTyrant I turn thee traitor in thy throat,
Sidney (Mary) Antony (1542) DIRCE: Kills in my throat my words, ere fully born.
Shakes Pericles (II.5) PERICLES: Even in his throat–unless it be the king– …
That calls me traitor, I return the lie.
Anon. Dodypoll (V.2.196): My Lort be Gar he lies falsely in his troat …

Few words
Brooke Romeus (531): In few unfeigned words, your hidden mind unfold,
(2713): In few plain words, the whole that was betide he told,
Golding Ovid Met. (II.978) Yet spake she briefly these few words to her
without her gate:
(VII.1104): To utter these few words at last: …
Gascoygne Supposes (II.2) EROSTRATO: … or at few words never think …
Edwards Dam&Pith (124) I promised friendship; but you love few words — …
(435) DAMON: … To describe in few words the state of this city.
(1246) GRIM: Yet in few words I tell you this one thing —
Watson Hek (XLII): and effectually set down (albeit in few words)
Lyly Endymion (I.4) TELLUS: Dipsas, listen in few words to my tale
Kyd Sp Tr ((III.15.1351): “Pocas palabras!”: few words.
Greene Alphonsus (II.1.15) ALPH: Laelius, few words would better thee become,
Chettle Kind Harts: bringeth forth more mischiefs than few words can express
Shakes H5 (3.2.36-37): … men of few words are the best men.
Similar sayings were also proverbial.
Anon. Willobie (XIV.4): Few words suffice where hearts consent,
Greene’s Groat (307) Brother, said Lucanio, lets use few words.
Geneva Bible Eccles. 5.1 let thy words be few

Shepherd (Good, lax shepherd)
Greene Alphonsus (II.1.58) BEL: Like simple sheep, when shepherd absent is
Far from his flock, assailed by greedy wolves,
Shakes 2H6 (2.2.73-74): Till they have snar’d the shepherd of the flock,
that virtuous prince.
3H6 (V.6) HENRY 6: So flies the reckless shepherd from the wolf;
So first the harmless sheep doth yield his fleece …
Rich3 (4.4.22-23): Wilt thou, O God, fly from such gentle lambs,
And throw them in the entrails of the wolf?
Edw3 (I.1) ARTOIS: Place the true shepherd of our commonwealth?
(III.3) PRINCE: Aye, that approves thee, tyrant, what thou art:
No father, king, or shepherd of thy realm,
Anon. Willobie (V.1): Needs must the sheep strake all awry,
Whose shepherds wander from their way:
Woodstock (IV.2): WOODSTOCK … where I compared the state (as
now it stands, meaning King Richard and his harmful flatterers) unto a
savage herd of ravening wolves, the commons to a flock of silly sheep who,
whilst their slothful shepherd careless stood, those forest thieves broke in,
and sucked their blood.
Oldcastle (IV.1) KING: Your lives as lamps to give the people light,
As shepherds, not as wolves to spoil the flock.
Geneva Bible John 10.11-14 I am the good shepherd: the good sheperd giveth his life for his sheep But an hierling … … seeth the wolf coming, & he leaveth the sheep, and fleeth, and the wolfe ctcheth them, and scattereth the sheep. …I am the good shepherd and know my sheep, and am known of mine.
Note: This concept, derived from the Bible, is perfectly expressed in a passage from the following letter of the Earl of Oxford.
Oxford letter (#4, 4-25/27 1603): There is nothing therefore left to my
comfort but the excellent virtues, and deep wisdom wherewith God hath
endued our new master and sovereign Lord, who doth not come amongst
us as a stranger but as a natural prince, succeeding by right of blood, and
inheritance, not as a conqueror, but as the true shepherd of Christ’s flock to
cherish and comfort them.

Duty … Bound
Gascoygne … Jocasta (I.1.20) SERVUS: For hereunto I am by duty bound,
Edwards D&P (747): EUBULUS: But yet, O might [king], my duty bindeth me.
(1758) EUBULUS: But chiefly yet, as duty bindeth, I humbly crave
Shakes 1H6 (II.1) TALBOT: How much in duty I am bound to both.
Oth (I.3) DES: I do perceive here a divided duty: / To you I am bound for life and education;
(III.3) IAGO: Though I am bound to every act of duty, …
(III.3) IAGO: To show the love and duty that I bear you
Lucrece (Prologue): Were my worth greater, my duty would show greater,
meantime, as it is bound to your lordship ,…
Kyd Sp Tr (II.1.59) PEDRINGANO: My bounden duty bids me tell the truth,
S&P (V.2.66) 2 WITNESS: And, as our duty and allegiance bound us,
Greene Alphonsus (III.1.24) ALPH: So that, perforce, I must by duty be
Bound to you all for this your courtesy.
Marlowe Tamb I (I.1): Emperior of Asia …; Great lord of Media and Armenia;
Duke of Africa and Albania, / Mesopotamia and of Parthia, &c.
Anon Dodypoll (I.1.6): O, that my rival bound me not in duty …
Cromwell (I.2.97-98) CROM: With all my heart, sir, and I much am bound,
In love and duty for your kindness shown.
To Syria &c. (Collins suggests that Greene borrowed from Marlowe)
Greene Alphonsus (III.2.58-62): You, Bajazet, go post away apace
To Syria, Scythia and Albania, / To Babylon and Mesopotamia,
Asia, Armenia, and all other lands
Which owe their homage to high Amurack:

Quiet rest
Brooke Romeus (1854): So we her parents in our age, shall live in quiet rest.
(2100): I never gave my weary limbs long time of quiet rest,
(2542): In heaven hath she sought to find a place of quiet rest.
Gascoygne … Jocasta (V.5.43) OEDI: Have greatest need to crave their quiet rest.
Oxford Poem (#2): Who first did break thy sleeps of quiet rest ?
Kyd Sp Tr (III.13.1089-90) HIER: Thus therefore will I rest me in unrest,
Dissembling quiet in unquietness.
Shakes: Rich3 (V.3) BLUNT: … And so, God give you quiet rest to-night!
King John (III.4) PANDULPH: One minute, nay, one quiet breath of rest …
Greene Alphonsus (III.2.95) CALCH: Shall nere my ghost obtain his quiet rest?
James 4 (V.1.80) Queen: How can it thrive or boast of quiet rest?
Anon. Woodstock (IV.3) BUSHY: her quiet soul rests in celestial peace:
Willobie (XLIIII.1): What sudden chance or change is this,
That doth bereave my quiet rest?
Greene’s Groat (526-27): that we might rest quietly
without the Maids and Bachelors disturbing.
Oldcastle (V.8) LADY COBHAM: But where, my Lord,
Shall we find rest for our disquiet minds?
Geneva Bible 1Kings Arg. Because the children of God should look for no
continual rest and quietness in this world .

Woeful wight … Hap
Golding Ovid (IX.562): Now woe is me, most wretched wight.
Brooke Romeus (2005): Her weary bed betime the woeful wight forsakes,
(2638): And them on divers parts beside, the woeful wight did hold.
Oxford poem #12 (Song: The Forsaken Man)
Drown me with trickling tears,
You wailful wights of woe;
Come help these hands to rend my hairs,
My rueful hap to show.
Care and Disappointment
Thus like a woeful wight I wove the web of woe.
To entertain my thoughts, and there my hap to moan.
possible Oxford, ascribed to Queen Elizabeth) (Importune Me No More)
How many weeping eyes I made to pine in woe;
How many sighing hearts I have no skill to show.
Edwards Dam&Pith (Song, 588-91)): Awake ye woeful wights,
That long have wept in woe:
Resign to me your plaints and tears,
My haplese hap to show.
Greene Alphonsus (IV.2.51) CARI: Some woeful wight lamenting
his mischance:
Anon. Penelope (VI.3): For careless wights* why do you care,
And causeless eke so woeful are?

Brinish Tears
Marlowe T2 (IV.2.9): OLYMP: And since this earth, dewed with thy
brinish tears,
Greene Alphonsus (V.3.88) FAUSTA: If that the salt-brine tears …
Anon. Ironside (III.5.65) EDR: and all our force lies drowned in brinish tears
Shakes 3H6 (III.1) H6: To hear and see her plaints, her brinish tears.
Lucrece (174): And wiped the brinish pearl from her bright eyes,

Forged truth (lies, dissimulations)
Brooke Romeus (321): With forged careless cheer, of one he seeks to know,
Golding Ovid Met. (V.13): Upholding that Medusa’s death was but a forged lie:
(IX.167): Through false and newly-forged lies that she herself doth sow),
Edwards D&P (1726): Away, the plague of this court!
Thy filed tongue that forged lies
Watson Hek (XLVII): No shower of tears can move, she thinks I forge:
So forge, that I may speed without delay;
Greene Alphonsus (IV.Pro.21) VENUS: Did give such credence to that forged tale
Kyd Sp Tr (I.2.92) VILUPPO: Thus have I with an envious, forged tale …
S&P (II.1.117) PERSEDA: … Ah, how thine eyes can forge alluring looks,
Shakes TA (V.2) TAMORA: … Whate’er I forge to feed his brain-sick fits,
1H6 (III.1) EXETER: Burns under feigned ashes of forged love
(IV.1): VERNON: … For though he seem with forged quaint conceit
Rich3 (IV.1) FITZWATER: … And I will turn thy falsehood to thy heart,
Where it was forged, …
Hamlet (I.5) … the whole ear of Denmark / Is by a forged process of my death
Rankly abused: …
V&A (132): Love is all truth, Lust full of forged lies.
Sonnet 137: Why of eyes’ falsehood hast thou forged hooks, …
AWEW (IV.1): 2d Lord: … and then to return and swear the lies he forges.
Othello (IV.2): OTHELLO: I should make very forges of my cheeks, …
Anon. Ironside (IV.1.101) EDMUND: not to believe each smooth-face forged tale.
(V.2.83) CANUTUS: Then to confute thy forged argument,
Arden (III.5.56) MOSBY: To forge distressful looks to wound a breast
Oldcastle (Pro.14): Since forged invention former time defaced.
Geneva Bible Pss 119.69, Job 13.4, Ecclus 51.2

Borrow … Light
Golding Ovid Met. (I.10): No Moon in growing did repair her horns with
borrowed light.
(VIII.13): … Six times did Phebe fill / Her horns with borrowed light;
Brooke Romeus (435): Had paid his borrowed light, and Phoebus spread in skies
(508): I should restore again to death, of life my borrowed light,
Lyly Campaspe (I.1.14-15) PARMENIO: For as the moon can borrow
nothing else of the sun but light,
Marlowe T1 (I.1.68) THERI: Before the Moon renew her borrowed light,
(IV.2.35) TAMB: Disdain to borrow light of Cynthia,
(IV.2.40) TAMB: And cause the Sun to borrow light of you.
T2 (IV.2.90) THERI: From whence the stars do borrow all their light
Greene Alphonsus (IV.2.40) DUKE: Thrice Cynthia, with Phoebus’
borrowed beams,
Shakes Lucrece (155): .. when, lo, the blushing morrow
Lends light to all fair eyes that light will borrow:
TNK (IV.1) JAILER’S DAUGHTER: [Sings] When Cynthia with her borrowed light . . .
Anon. Mucedorus (Pro.14): For, from your Beams, Europe shall borrow light.

Pray loud enough
Greene Alphonsus (IV.3.147) ALB: Pray loud enough, lest that you pray in vain:
Geneva Bible 1 Kings 18.27 And at noon Elijah mocked them, and said,
Cry loud: for hs is a god: either he talketh or pursueth his enemies, or is in his
journey, or it maybe that he sleepeth, and must be awaked

Scatology … Dunghill
Harvey (1593): Pierce’s Supererogation (in an apparent reference to Oxford):
there is a cap of maintenance, called Impudency: and what say to him, that in a super-abundance of that same odd capricious humour, findeth no such want in England as of an Aretine, that might strip these golden Asses out of their gay trappings, and after he had ridden them to death with railing, leave them on the dung-hill for carrion?
Greene Alphonsus (V.3.64) AMURACK: Into the hands of such a / dunghill Knight?
(V.3.70) ALPH: ‘Villain,’ sayest thou? ‘Traitor’ and ‘dunghill Knight?’
Shakes 1H6 (I.3): Shall I be flouted thus by dunghill grooms?
2H6 (I.3): Base dunghill villain and mechanical,
(IV.10): Unto a dunghill which shall be thy grave,
LLL (V.1): Go to; thou hast it ad dunghill, at the fingers’
O, I smell false Latin; dunghill for unguem.
KING JOHN: Out, dunghill! darest thou brave a nobleman?
MWW (I.3): Then did the sun on dunghill shine.
2H4 (V.3): Shall dunghill curs confront the Helicons?
H5 (IV.3): Dying like men, though buried in your dunghills,
AsYou (I.1): which his animals on his dunghills are as much
LEAR (III.7): Upon the dunghill. Regan, I bleed apace:
(IV.6): Out, dunghill!
Nashe Will Summers (449): How base is pride from his own dung-hill put!
Chapman D’Olive (V.2.100) D’OLIVE: … like old rags out of dunghills …,
Anon Ironside (I.1.22-29) LEOFRIC: Oh what a grief is it to noble bloods
to see each base-born groom promoted up, / each dunghill brat arreared to dignity,
(III.5.1-3) CANUTUS: A plague upon you all for arrant cowards!
Look how a dunghill cock, not rightly bred, / doth come into the pit with greater grace,
Weakest (XVI.158) BRABANT: Never begot but of some dunghill churl.
Willobie (XII.1): Thou beggar’s brat, thou dung-hill mate,
Thou clownish spawn, thou country gill,
My love is turned to wreakful hate, / Go hang, and keep thy credit still,
Gad where thou list, aright or wrong, / I hope to see thee beg, ere long.
Cromwell (I.2.68) CROM: And from the dunghill minions do advance

Fly away
Brooke Romeus (975): For lo, the Montagues thought shame away to fly,
Golding Ovid Met (VII.103): … and frantic love did fly away dismayed.
(XI.87): Aflaited for to fly away
Lyly Gallathea (I.1) TYTERUS: the fowls fly away,
and the cattle in the field for terror shun the banks.
Marlowe T2 (V.3.70) TAMB: Who flies away at every glance I give,
Greene Alphonsus (V.3.121-22) AMURACK: Can ere be found to turn
his heels and fly / Away for fear from such a boy as thou?
Shakes 2H6 (II.1) SUFFOLK: True; made the lame to leap and fly away.
1H6 (IV.6) TALBOT: All these are saved if thou wilt fly away.
TGV (III.1) VAL: But, fly I hence, I fly away from life.
12th (II.4) CLOWN: Come away, come away, death, … / Fly away, fly away breath;
WT (III.2) OFFICER: for / their better safety, to fly away by night.
Titus (V.2) TITUS: That so my sad decrees may fly away,
Anon. Willobie (XXXVIII.3): And though the body fly away,
Yet let me with the shadow play.
Penelope: (XLVI.2): And yet not one away would fly.
Dodypoll (III.5.70-71) LUCILIA: Ah, have I loosed thee then to fly from me?

Trickling … Tears
Brooke Romeus (1193): The nurse with trickling tears to witness / inward smart,
(1540): Their trickling tears, as crystal clear, but bitterer far than gall.
Gascoygne … Jocasta (II.1.69) JOC: Naught else but tears have trickled / from mine eyes,
(V.2.153) NUNCIUS: The trickling tears rained down his paled cheeks:
Golding Ovid Met (I.430): And with these words the bitter tears did / trickle down their cheek,
(II.821): A sore deep sigh, and down her cheeks the tears did trickle wet.
Oxford Dainty Devices: The trickling tears that fall along my cheeks,
(ibid.): The Forsaken Man: Drown me with trickling tears,
Greene Alphonsus (V.3.190) CARINUS: Then, dainty damsel, stint / these trickling tears;
Shakes 1H4 (II.4) FALSTAFF: Weep not, sweet queen; for trickling / tears are vain.
Willobie (XLVII.5): Your silent sighs & trickling tears,
(XLVIII.5): Where thinking on my helpless hap, / My trickling tears, like rivers flow,
Lyly MB (I.3) PRISCIUS: with tears trickling down thy cheeks
and drops of blood falling from thy heart

Appendix III: Vocabulary, Word Formation


Favored Words; mickle; out-of-hand; for because (used widely in Golding Ovid), Romeus, Kyd Sp Tr.; used 9 times in Alphonsus, not once in Orlando, Fr Bac, James IV, or Greene’s Groat; triple world.

Distinctive Words, Phrases: what might the occasion be (2); not found in Fr Bac, J4, Orlando, Groat. suffix “ward”, i.e. Naples-ward, Temple-ward. This construction is not found in Orlando, Fr Bac, James IV, or Greene’s Groat. It is widely used in Golding Ovid.
what means (this)?

Compound Words (*surely unusual): 17 words. (9 nouns, 7 adj, 1 adv).
hand-to-hand (adv), bob-fool* (n), cannon-shot (n), demi-parcel (n), gentle-wise (n), men-at-arms (n), Naple-ward (n), over-curious (a), over-much (adv), over-squeamish (a), over-weak (a), resting-place (n), salt-brine (a), scot-free (a), son-in-law (n), Temple-ward (n), three-fold (a), well-deserved (a)

Words beginning with “con” (*surely unusual): 17 words. (8 verbs, 7 nouns, 4 adj, 1 adv).
concubine (n), concupiscence (n), condition (n), confess (v), confines (n), confirm (v), conflict (n), conjoin (v), conjure (v), conquer (v), conquest (n), consent (v, n), constant (a), content (a), contrary* (v, a), control (v), convenient[ly] (a, adv)

Words beginning with “dis” (*surely unusual): 14 words. (7 verbs, 5 nouns, 3 adj).
disbase* (v), discharge (n, v), discontent (a), discourse (n), disdain (v), disgrace (n), disguised (a), displease (v), displeasure (n), disposed (v), dispossessed (v), distilling (v), distress (n), distressed (a)

Words beginning with “mis”: 4 words (1 verb, 3 nouns).
mischance (n), mishap (n), misery (n), misuse (v)

Words beginning with “over”: 7 words (2 verbs, 1 noun, 3 adj, 1 adv).
over-curious (a), overhear (v), over-much (adv), over-squeamish (a), overthrow (n), overthwart (v), over-weak (a)

Words beginning with “pre”: 10 words (4 verbs, 2 nouns, 3 adj, 1 adv).
predecessors (n), prejudicial (a), presence (n), present (a), presently (adv), preserve (v), presume (v), presumptuous (a), prevail (v), prevent (v)

Words beginning with “re”: 31 words (23 verbs, 10 nouns).
rebuke (v), recall (v), receive (v), recompense (v, n), record (n), recount (v), recover (v), refrain (v), regiment (n), register (n), rehearse (v), reject (v), rejoice (v), release (v), remain (v), remedy (n), remember (v), renown (n), repeat (v), repent (v), report (n), repulse (n), require (v), requite (v), resemble (v), resolve (v), respect (n), return (v), revenge (v, n), revoke (v), reward (v)

Words beginning with “un”,”in”(* surely unusual): 34 words (12/3/16/3)
incontinent (a), increase (v), inform (v), injury (n), injurious (a), install (v), instruction (n), instrument (n), insufficient (a), intend (v), intent (n), intuit* (v)
indeed (conj), instead (adv), into (prep)
unable (a), unconstant (a), uncourteous (a), undo/done (v), unfold (v), unhappy (a), unjustly (adv), unkenned (a), unkind (a), unpunished (a), unseemly (a), unsheath (v), untouched (a), untruth (n), unwilling (a), unwittingly (adv)
underneath (prep), unless (conj), unto (prep)

Words ending in “able”: 1 word (adj) — unable.

Words ending in “ize“: 1 word (verb) — solemnize.

Words ending in “less” (*surely unusual): 10 words (1 noun, 8 adj, 1 conj).
breathless (a), careless[ly] (a), fleshless (a), guiltless (a), hapless (a), idless’* (n), luckless (a), peerless (a), thankless (a), unless (conj)

Words ending in “ness”: 10 words (all nouns).
business, foolishness, forwardness, gentleness, happiness, hardness, rashness, readiness, sharpness, witness
Reflexives: advise thee, assure thyself/yourself, behaved himself, bethink thee, cast thyself down, deceive thyself, eased herself, feed not thyself, look thou, mount you, persuade thyself’, release thyself, resolve me, think you, undo himself, prove yourself, may revenge him